DAT Reading Comprehension Test Compilation

DAT Reading Comprehension Test Compilation

Below are some reading comprehension test compilations from various sources including some from the GMAT, MCAT, PCAT, etc. Give yourself only 1 minute and 10 seconds for each question to simulate the real Dental Admissions Test (DAT). Answers are located at the bottom of the page.

Use CTRL+F to navigate the passages, there 64 Passages within this document. (Example: CTRL +F and type in Passage 50 to find Passage 50)

Passage 1

Recent years have brought minority-owned

businesses in the United States unprecedented

opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.

Civil rights activists have long argued that one of

(5) the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and

other minority groups have difficulty establishing

themselves in business is that they lack access to

the sizable orders and subcontracts that are gener-

ated by large companies. Now Congress, in appar-

(10) ent agreement, has required by law that businesses

awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000

do their best to find minority subcontractors and

record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the

government. Indeed, some federal and local agen-

(15) cies have gone so far as to set specific percentage

goals for apportioning parts of public works con-

tracts to minority enterprises.

Corporate response appears to have been sub-

stantial. According to figures collected in 1977,

(20) the total of corporate contracts with minority busi-

nesses rose from $77 million in 1972 to $1. lbillion

in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts

with minority businesses for the early 1980’s is

estimated to be over 53 billion per year with no

(25) letup anticipated in the next decade.

Promising as it is for minority businesses, this

increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.

First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and

overextending themselves financially, since most

(30) are small concerns and, unlike large businesses,

they often need to make substantial investments in

new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order

to perform work subcontracted to them. If, there-

after, their subcontracts are for some reason

(35) reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling

fixed expenses. The world of corporate purchasing

can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get

requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.

Both consume valuable time and resources, and a

(40) small company’s efforts must soon result in

orders, or both the morale and the financial health

of the business will suffer.

A second risk is that White-owned companies

may seek to cash in on the increasing apportion-

(45) ments through formation of joint ventures with

minority-owned concerns. Of course, in many

instances there are legitimate reasons for joint

ventures; clearly, White and minority enterprises

can team up to acquire business that neither could

(50) acquire alone. But civil rights groups and minority

business owners have complained to Congress about

minorities being set up as “fronts” with White back-

ing, rather than being accepted as full partners in

legitimate joint ventures.

(55) Third, a minority enterprise that secures the

business of one large corporate customer often run

the danger of becoming–and remaining—dependent.

Even in the best of circumstances, fierce compe-

tition from larger, more established companies

(60) makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden

their customer bases: when such firms have nearly

guaranteed orders from a single corporate bene-

factor, they may truly have to struggle against

complacency arising from their current success.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present a commonplace idea and its


(B) describe a situation and its potential drawbacks

(C) propose a temporary solution to a problem

(D) analyze a frequent source of disagreement

(E) explore the implications of a finding

2. The passage supplies information that would answer

which of the following questions?

(A) What federal agencies have set percentage goals for

the use of minority-owned businesses in public

works contracts?

(B) To which government agencies must

businesses awarded federal contracts report their

efforts to find minority subcontractors?

(C) How widespread is the use of minority-owned

concerns as “fronts” by White backers seeking to

obtain subcontracts?

(D) How many more minority-owned businesses were

there in 1977 than in 1972?

(E) What is one set of conditions under which a

small business might find itself financially over-


3. According to the passage, civil rights activists

maintain that one disadvantage under which

minority- owned businesses have traditionally had

to labor is that they have

(A) been especially vulnerable to governmental

mismanagement of the economy

(B) been denied bank loans at rates comparable to

those afforded larger competitors

(C) not had sufficient opportunity to secure business

created by large corporations

(D) not been able to advertise in those media that

reach large numbers of potential customers

(E) not had adequate representation in the centers of

government power

4. The passage suggests that the failure of a large

business to have its bids for subcontracts result

quickly in orders might cause it to

(A) experience frustration but not serious financial


(B) face potentially crippling fixed expenses

(C) have to record its efforts on forms filed with the


(D) increase its spending with minority


(E) revise its procedure for making bids for federal

contracts and subcontracts

5. The author implies that a minority-owned concern

that does the greater part of its business with one

large corporate customer should

(A) avoid competition with larger, more established

concerns by not expanding
(B) concentrate on securing even more business

from that corporation

(C) try to expand its customer base to avoid

becoming dependent on the corporation
(D) pass on some of the work to be done for the

corporation to other minority-owned concerns

(E) use its influence with the corporation to promote

subcontracting with other minority concerns

6. It can be inferred from the passage that, compared

with the requirements of law, the percentage goals

set by “some federal and local agencies ”(lines 14-

15) are

(A) more popular with large corporations

(B) more specific

(C) less controversial

(D) less expensive to enforce

(E) easier to comply with

7. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the

author’s assertion that, in the 1970’s, corporate

response to federal requirements (lines 18-19) was


(A) Corporate contracts with minority-owned

businesses totaled $2 billion in 1979.

(B) Between 1970 and 1972, corporate contracts with

minority-owned businesses declined by 25


(C) The figures collected in 1977 underrepresented

the extent of corporate contracts with minority-

owned businesses.

(D) The estimate of corporate spending with

minority-owned businesses in 1980 is

approximately $10 million too high.

(E) The $1.1 billion represented the same

percentage of total corporate spending in 1977

as did $77 million in 1972.

8. The author would most likely agree with which of the

following statements about corporate response to

working with minority subcontractors?

(A) Annoyed by the proliferation of “front”

organizations, corporations are likely to reduce

their efforts to work with minority-owned

subcontractors in the near future.

(B) Although corporations showed considerable

interest in working with minority businesses in

the 1970’s, their aversion to government

paperwork made them reluctant to pursue many

government contracts.
(C) The significant response of corporations in the

1970’s is likely to be sustained and conceivably

be increased throughout the 1980’s.

(D) Although corporations are eager to cooperate

with minority-owned businesses, a shortage of

capital in the 1970’s made substantial response


(E) The enormous corporate response has all but

eliminated the dangers of overexpansion that

used to plague small minority-owned businesses.

Passage 2

Woodrow Wilson was referring to the liberal

idea of the economic market when he said that

the free enterprise system is the most efficient

economic system. Maximum freedom means

(5) maximum productiveness; our “openness” is to

be the measure of our stability. Fascination with

this ideal has made Americans defy the “Old

World” categories of settled possessiveness versus

unsettling deprivation, the cupidity of retention

(10) versus the cupidity of seizure, a “status quo”

defended or attacked. The United States, it was

believed, had no status quo ante. Our only “sta-

tion” was the turning of a stationary wheel, spin-

ning faster and faster. We did not base our

(15) system on property but opportunity—which

meant we based it not on stability but on mobil-

ity. The more things changed, that is, the more

rapidly the wheel turned, the steadier we would

be. The conventional picture of class politics is

(20) composed of the Haves, who want a stability to

keep what they have, and the Have-Nots, who

want a touch of instability and change in which

to scramble for the things they have not. But

Americans imagined a condition in which spec-

(25) ulators, self-makers, runners are always using the

new opportunities given by our land. These eco-

nomic leaders (front-runners) would thus he

mainly agents of change. The nonstarters were

considered the ones who wanted stability, a

(30) strong referee to give them some position in the

race, a regulative hand to calm manic specula-

tion; an authority that can call things to a halt,

begin things again from compensatorily stag-

gered “starting lines.”

(35) “Reform” in America has been sterile because

it can imagine no change except through the

extension of this metaphor of a race, wider inclu-

sion of competitors, “a piece of the action,” as it

were, for the disenfranchised. There is no

(40) attempt to call off the race. Since our only sta-

bility is change, America seems not to honor the

quiet work that achieves social interdependence

and stability. There is, in our legends, no hero-

ism of the office clerk, no stable industrial work

(45) force of the people who actually make the system

work. There is no pride in being an employee

(Wilson asked for a return to the time when

everyone was an employer). There has been no

boasting about our social workers—they are

(50) merely signs of the system’s failure, of opportu-

nity denied or not taken, of things to be elimi-

nated. We have no pride in our growing

interdependence, in the fact that our system can

serve others, that we are able to help those in

(55) need; empty boasts from the past make us

ashamed of our present achievements, make us

try to forget or deny them, move away from

them. There is no honor but in the Wonderland

race we must all run, all trying to win, none

(60) winning in the end (for there is no end).

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) criticize the inflexibility of American economic


(B) contrast “Old World” and “New World” economic


(C) challenge the integrity of traditional political


(D) champion those Americans whom the author

deems to be neglected

(E) suggest a substitute for the traditional metaphor

of a race

2. According to the passage, “Old World” values were

based on

(A) ability

(B) property

(C) family connections

(D) guild hierarchies

(E) education

3. In the context of the author’s discussion of

regulating change, which of the following could be

most probably regarded as a “strong referee” (line

30) in the United States?

(A) A school principal

(B) A political theorist

(C) A federal court judge

(D) A social worker

(E) A government inspector

4. The author sets off the word “Reform” (line 35) with

quotation marks in order to

(A) emphasize its departure from the concept of

settled possessiveness

(B) show his support for a systematic program of


(C) underscore the flexibility and even amorphousness

of United States society.

(D) indicate that the term was one of Wilson’s favorites

(E) assert that reform in the United States has not

been fundamental

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author

most probably thinks that giving the disenfranchised

“a piece of the action ” (line 38) is

(A) a compassionate, if misdirected, legislative


(B) an example of Americans’ resistance to profound

social change

(C) an innovative program for genuine social reform

(D) a monument to the efforts of industrial reformers

(E) a surprisingly “Old World” remedy for social ills

6. Which of the following metaphors could the author

most appropriately use to summarize his own

assessment of the American economic system

(lines 35-60)?

(A) A windmill
(B) A waterfall

(C) A treadmill

(D) A gyroscope
(E) A bellows

7. It can be inferred from the passage that Woodrow

Wilson’s ideas about the economic market

(A) encouraged those who “make the system work”

(lines 45-46)

(B) perpetuated traditional legends about America

(C) revealed the prejudices of a man born wealthy

(D) foreshadowed the stock market crash of 1929

(E) began a tradition of presidential proclamations on


8. The passage contains information that would answer

which of the following questions?

Ⅰ.What techniques have industrialists used to

manipulate a free market?

Ⅱ.In what ways are “ New World” and “ Old World”

economic policies similar?

Ⅲ. Has economic policy in the United States tended

to reward independent action?

(A) Ⅰonly
(B) Ⅱonly

(C) Ⅲ only

(D) Ⅰand Ⅱ only

(E) Ⅱand Ⅲ only

9. Which of the following best expresses the author’s

main point?

(A) Americans’ pride in their jobs continues to give

them stamina today.
(B) The absence of a status quo ante has

undermined United States economic structure.

(C) The free enterprise system has been only a

useless concept in the United States

(D) The myth of the American free enterprise system

is seriously flawed.

(E) Fascination with the ideal of “openness” has

made Americans a progressive people.

Passage 3

No very satisfactory account of the mechanism

that caused the formation of the ocean basins has

yet been given. The traditional view supposes

that the upper mantle of the earth behaves as a

(5) liquid when it is subjected to small forces for

long periods and that differences in temperature

under oceans and continents are sufficient to

produce convection in the mantle of the earth

with rising convection currents under the mid-

(10) ocean ridges and sinking currents under the con-

tinents. Theoretically, this convection would

carry the continental plates along as though they

were on a conveyor belt and would provide the

forces needed to produce the split that occurs

(15) along the ridge. This view may be correct: it has

the advantage that the currents are driven by

temperature differences that themselves depend

on the position of the continents. Such a back-

coupling, in which the position of the moving

(20) plate has an impact on the forces that move it,

could produce complicated and varying motions.

On the other hand, the theory is implausible

because convection does not normally occur

along lines. and it certainly does not occur along

(25) lines broken by frequent offsets or changes in

direction, as the ridge is. Also it is difficult to see

how the theory applies to the plate between the

Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the ridge in the Indian

Ocean. This plate is growing on both sides, and

(30) since there is no intermediate trench, the two

ridges must be moving apart. It would be odd if

the rising convection currents kept exact pace

with them. An alternative theory is that the sink-

ing part of the plate, which is denser than the

(35) hotter surrounding mantle, pulls the rest of the

plate after it. Again it is difficult to see how this

applies to the ridge in the South Atlantic, where

neither the African nor the American plate has a

sinking part.

(40) Another possibility is that the sinking plate

cools the neighboring mantle and produces con-

vection currents that move the plates. This last

theory is attractive because it gives some hope of

explaining the enclosed seas, such as the Sea of

(45) Japan. These seas have a typical oceanic floor,

except that the floor is overlaid by several kilo-

meters of sediment. Their floors have probably

been sinking for long periods. It seems possible

that a sinking current of cooled mantle material

(50) on the upper side of the plate might be the cause

of such deep basins. The enclosed seas are an

important feature of the earth’s surface, and

seriously require explanation in because, addi-

tion to the enclosed seas that are developing at

present behind island arcs, there are a number of

(55) older ones of possibly similar origin, such as the

Gulf of Mexico, the Black Sea, and perhaps the

North Sea.

1. According to the traditional view of the origin of the

ocean basins, which of the following is sufficient to

move the continental plates?

(A) Increases in sedimentation on ocean floors

(B) Spreading of ocean trenches

(C) Movement of mid-ocean ridges

(D) Sinking of ocean basins
(E) Differences in temperature under oceans and


2. It can be inferred from the passage that, of the follo-

wing, the deepest sediments would be found in the

(A) Indian Ocean

(B) Black Sea

(C) Mid-Atlantic

(D) South Atlantic

(E) Pacific

3. The author refers to a “conveyor belt ” in line 13 in

order to

(A) illustrate the effects of convection in the mantle

(B) show how temperature differences depend on

the positions of the continents

(C) demonstrate the linear nature of the Mid-Atlantic


(D) describe the complicated motions made possible

by back-coupling

(E) account for the rising currents under certain mid-

ocean ridges

4. The author regards the traditional view of the origin

of the oceans with

(A) slight apprehension

(B) absolute indifference

(C) indignant anger

(D) complete disbelief

(E) guarded skepticism

5. According to the passage, which of the following are

separated by a plate that is growing on both sides?

(A) The Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan

(B) The South Atlantic Ridge and the North Sea Ridge

(C) The Gulf of Mexico and the South Atlantic Ridge

(D) The Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Indian Ocean

(E) The Black Sea and the Sea of Japan

6. Which of the following, if it could be demonstrated,

would most support the traditional view of ocean


(A) Convection usually occurs along lines.

(B) The upper mantle behaves as a dense solid.

(C) Sedimentation occurs at a constant rate.

(D) Sinking plates cool the mantle.
(E) Island arcs surround enclosed seas.

7. According to the passage, the floor of the Black Sea

can best be compared to a

(A) rapidly moving conveyor belt
(B) slowly settling foundation

(C) rapidly expanding balloon

(D) violently erupting volcano

(E) slowly eroding mountain

8. Which of the following titles would best describe the

content of the passage?

(A) A Description of the Oceans of the World

(B) Several Theories of Ocean Basin Formation

(C) The Traditional View of the Oceans
(D) Convection and Ocean Currents
(E) Temperature Differences Among the Oceans of

the World

Passage 4

The fossil remains of the first flying vertebrates, the

pterosaurs, have intrigued paleontologists for more

than two centuries. How such large creatures, which

weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider

(5) and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the

problems of powered flight, and exactly what these

creatures were–reptiles or birds-are among the ques-

tions scientists have puzzled over.

Perhaps the least controversial assertion about the

(10) pterosaurs is that they were reptiles. Their skulls,

pelvises, and hind feet are reptilian. The anatomy of

their wings suggests that they did not evolve into the

class of birds. In pterosaurs a greatly elongated fourth

finger of each forelimb supported a winglike membrane.

(15) The other fingers were short and reptilian, with sharp

claws. In birds the second finger is the principal strut

of the wing, which consists primarily of feathers. If the

pterosaurs walked on all fours, the three short fingers

may have been employed for grasping. When a

(20) pterosaur walked or remained stationary, the fourth

finger, and with it the wing, could only turn upward in

an extended inverted V-shape along each side of the animal’s body.

The pterosaurs resembled both birds and bats in

(25) their overall structure and proportions. This is not sur-

prising because the design of any flying vertebrate is

subject to aerodynamic constraints. Both the pterosaurs

and the birds have hollow bones, a feature that repre-

sents a savings in weight. In the birds, however, these

(30) bones are reinforced more massively by internal struts.

Although scales typically cover reptiles, the

pterosaurs probably had hairy coats. T.H. Huxley rea-

soned that flying vertebrates must have been warm-

blooded because flying implies a high rate of

(35) metabolism, which in turn implies a high internal tem-

perature. Huxley speculated that a coat of hair would

insulate against loss of body heat and might streamline

the body to reduce drag in flight. The recent discovery

of a pterosaur specimen covered in long, dense, and

(40) relatively thick hairlike fossil material was the first clear

evidence that his reasoning was correct.

Efforts to explain how the pterosaurs became air-

borne have led to suggestions that they launched them-

selves by jumping from cliffs, by dropping from trees.

(45) or even by rising into light winds from the crests of

waves. Each hypothesis has its difficulties. The first

wrongly assumes that the pterosaurs’ hind feet rese-

mbled a bat’s and could serve as hooks by which the

animal could hang in preparation for flight. The second

(50) hypothesis seems unlikely because large pterosaurs

could not have landed in trees without damaging their

wings. The third calls for high waves to channel

updrafts. The wind that made such waves however,

might have been too strong for the pterosaurs to

(55) control their flight once airborne.

1. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists now

generally agree that the

(A) enormous wingspan of the pterosaurs enabled

them to fly great distances
(B) structure of the skeleton of the pterosaurs suggests a

close evolutionary relationship to bats

(C) fossil remains of the pterosaurs reveal how they

solved the problem of powered flight

(D) pterosaurs were reptiles

(E) pterosaurs walked on all fours

2. The author views the idea that the pterosaurs

became airborne by rising into light winds created

by waves as

(A) revolutionary

(B) unlikely

(C) unassailable

(D) probable

(E) outdated

3. According to the passage, the skeleton of a

pterosaur can be distinguished from that of a bird by


(A) size of its wingspan

(B) presence of hollow spaces in its bones

(C) anatomic origin of its wing strut

(D) presence of hooklike projections on its hind feet

(E) location of the shoulder joint joining the wing to its


4. The ideas attributed to T.H. Huxley in the passage

suggest that he would most likely agree with which

of the following statements?

(A) An animal’s brain size has little bearing on its

ability to master complex behaviors.

(B) An animal’s appearance is often influenced by

environmental requirements and physical


(C) Animals within a given family group are unlikely

to change their appearance dramatically over a

period of time.

(D) The origin of flight in vertebrates was an

accidental development rather than the outcome

of specialization or adaptation.

(E) The pterosaurs should be classified as birds, not


5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the

following is characteristic of the pterosaurs?

(A) They were unable to fold their wings when not in


(B) They hung upside down from branches as bats

do before flight.

(C) They flew in order to capture prey.
(D) They were an early stage in the evolution of the


(E) They lived primarily in a forestlike habitat.

6.Which of the following best describes the organization

of the last paragraph of the passage?

(A) New evidence is introduced to support a

traditional point of view.

(B) Three explanations for a phenomenon are

presented, and each is disputed by means of

specific information.

(C) Three hypotheses are outlined, and evidence

supporting each is given.

(D) Recent discoveries are described, and their

implications for future study are projected

(E) A summary of the material in the preceding

paragraphs is presented, and conclusions are


7. It can be inferred from the passage that some

scientists believe that pterosaurs

(A) lived near large bodies of water

(B) had sharp teeth for tearing food

(C) were attacked and eaten by larger reptiles

(D) had longer tails than many birds
(E) consumed twice their weight daily to maintain

their body temperature

Passage 5

How many really suffer as a result of labor mar-

ket problems? This is one of the most critical yet

contentious social policy questions. In many ways,

our social statistics exaggerate the degree of hard-

(5) ship. Unemployment does not have the same dire

consequences today as it did in the 1930’s when

most of the unemployed were primary breadwin-

ners, when income and earnings were usually much

closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there

(10) were no countervailing social programs for those

failing in the labor market. Increasing affluence, the

rise of families with more than one wage earner, the

growing predominance of secondary earners among

the unemployed, and improved social welfare pro-

(15) tection have unquestionably mitigated the conse-

quences of joblessness. Earnings and income data

also overstate the dimensions of hardship. Among

the millions with hourly earnings at or below the

minimum wage level, the overwhelming majority

(20) are from multiple-earner, relatively affluent

families. Most of those counted by the poverty

statistics are elderly or handicapped or have family

responsibilities which keep them out of the labor

force, so the poverty statistics are by no means an

(25) accurate indicator of labor market pathologies.

Yet there are also many ways our social statistics

underestimate the degree of labor-market-related

hardship. The unemployment counts exclude the

millions of fully employed workers whose wages are

(30) so low that their families remain in poverty. Low

wages and repeated or prolonged unemployment

frequently interact to undermine the capacity for

self-support. Since the number experiencing jobless-

ness at some time during the year is several times

(35)the number unemployed in any month, those who

suffer as a result of forced idleness can equal or

exceed average annual unemployment, even though

only a minority of the jobless in any month really

suffer. For every person counted in the monthly

(40) unemployment tallies, there is another working

part-time because of the inability to find full-time

work, or else outside the labor force but wanting a

job. Finally, income transfers in our country have

always focused on the elderly, disabled, and depen-

(45)dent, neglecting the needs of the working poor, so

that the dramatic expansion of cash and in-kind

transfers does not necessarily mean that those fail-

ing in the labor market are adequately protected.

As a result of such contradictory evidence, it is

(50) uncertain whether those suffering seriously as a

result of thousands or the tens of millions, and,

hence, whether high levels of joblessness can be tol-

erated or must be countered by job creation and

(55) economic stimulus. There is only one area of agree-

ment in this debate—that the existing poverty,

employment, and earnings statistics are inadequate

for one their primary applications, measuring the

consequences of labor market problems.

1. Which of the following is the principal topic of the


(A) What causes labor market pathologies that result

in suffering

(B) Why income measures are imprecise in measuring

degrees of poverty

(C) Which of the currently used statistical procedures

are the best for estimating the incidence of

hardship that is due to unemployment

(D) Where the areas of agreement are among

poverty, employment, and earnings figures

(E) How social statistics give an unclear picture of the

degree of hardship caused by low wages and

insufficient employment opportunities

2. The author uses “labor market problems” in lines 1-2

to refer to which of the following?

(A) The overall causes of poverty

(B) Deficiencies in the training of the work force

(C) Trade relationships among producers of goods

(D) Shortages of jobs providing adequate income

(E) Strikes and inadequate supplies of labor

3. The author contrasts the 1930’s with the present in

order to show that

(A) more people were unemployed in the 1930’s

(B) unemployment now has less severe effects

(C) social programs are more needed now

(D) there now is a greater proportion of elderly and

handicapped people among those in poverty

(E) poverty has increased since the 1930’s

4.Which of the following proposals best responds to the

issues raised by the author?

(A) Innovative programs using multiple approaches

should be set up to reduce the level of


(B) A compromise should be found between the

positions of those who view joblessness as an

evil greater than economic control and those who

hold the opposite view.

(C) New statistical indices should be developed to

measure the degree to which unemployment and

inadequately paid employment cause suffering.

(D) Consideration should be given to the ways in which

statistics can act as partial causes of the phenomena

that they purport to measure.

(E) The labor force should be restructured so that it

corresponds to the range of job vacancies.

5.The author’s purpose in citing those who are repeatedly

unemployed during a twelve-month period is most

probably to show that

(A) there are several factors that cause the payment

of low wages to some members of the labor force

(B) unemployment statistics can underestimate the

hardship resulting from joblessness

(C) recurrent inadequacies in the labor market can

exist and can cause hardships for individual


(D) a majority of those who are jobless at any one

time to not suffer severe hardship

(E) there are fewer individuals who are without jobs

at some time during a year than would be

expected on the basis of monthly unemployment


6. The author states that the mitigating effect of social

programs involving income transfers on the income

level of low-income people is often not felt by

(A) the employed poor

(B) dependent children in single-earner families

(C) workers who become disabled

(D) retired workers

(E) full-time workers who become unemployed

7. According to the passage, one factor that causes

unemployment and earnings figures to overpredict

the amount of economic hardship is the

(A) recurrence of periods of unemployment for a

group of low-wage workers

(B) possibility that earnings may be received from

more than one job per worker

(C) fact that unemployment counts do not include

those who work for low wages and remain poor

(D) establishment of a system of record-keeping that

makes it possible to compile poverty statistics

(E) prevalence, among low-wage workers and the

unemployed, of members of families in which

others are employed

8. The conclusion stated in lines 33-39 about the

number of people who suffer as a result of forced

idleness depends primarily on the point that

(A) in times of high unemployment, there are some

people who do not remain unemployed for long

(B) the capacity for self-support depends on

receiving moderate-to-high wages

(C) those in forced idleness include, besides the

unemployed, both underemployed part-time

workers and those not actively seeking work

(D) at different times during the year, different people

are unemployed

(E) many of those who are affected by unemploy-

ment are dependents of unemployed workers

9. Which of the following, if true, is the best criticism of

the author’s argument concerning why poverty

statistics cannot properly be used to show the effects of

problems in the labor market?

(A) A short-term increase in the number of those in

poverty can indicate a shortage of jobs because the

basic number of those unable to accept employment

remains approximately constant.

(B) For those who are in poverty as a result of

joblessness, there are social programs available

that provide a minimum standard of living.

(C) Poverty statistics do not consistently agree with

earnings statistics, when each is taken as a

measure of hardship resulting from unemployment.

(D) The elderly and handicapped categories include

many who previously were employed in the labor


(E) Since the labor market is global in nature, poor

workers in one country are competing with poor

workers in another with respect to the level of

wages and the existence of jobs.

Passage 6

In the eighteenth century, Japan’s feudal

overlords, from the shogun to the humblest

samurai, found themselves under financial

stress. In part, this stress can be attributed to

(5) the overlords’ failure to adjust to a rapidly ex-

panding economy, but the stress was also due to
factors beyond the overlords’ control. Concen-

tration of the samurai in castle-towns had acted

as a stimulus to trade. Commercial efficiency, in

(10) turn, had put temptations in the way of buyers.

Since most samurai had been reduced to idleness

by years of peace, encouraged to engage in

scholarship and martial exercises or to perform

administrative tasks that took little time, it is

(15) not surprising that their tastes and habits grew

expensive. Overlords’ income, despite the in-

crease in rice production among their tenant

farmers, failed to keep pace with their expenses.

Although shortfalls in overlords’ income re-

(20) sulted almost as much from laxity among their

tax collectors (the nearly inevitable outcome of

hereditary officeholding) as from their higher

standards of living, a misfortune like a fire or

flood, bringing an increase in expenses or a drop

(25) in revenue, could put a domain in debt to the

city rice-brokers who handled its finances. Once

in debt, neither the individual samurai nor the

shogun himself found it easy to recover.

It was difficult for individual samurai over-

(30) lords to increase their income because the

amount of rice that farmers could be made to

pay in taxes was not unlimited, and since the in-

come of Japan’s central government consisted in

part of taxes collected by the shogun from his

(35) huge domain, the government too was con-

strained. Therefore, the Tokugawa shoguns

began to look to other sources for revenue.

Cash profits from government-owned mines

were already on the decline because the most

(40) easily worked deposits of silver and gold had

been exhausted, although debasement of the

coinage had compensated for the loss. Opening

up new farmland was a possibility, but most of

what was suitable had already been exploited

(45) and further reclamation was technically unfeasi-

ble. Direct taxation of the samurai themselves

would be politically dangerous. This left the

shoguns only commerce as a potential source of

government income.

(50) Most of the country’s wealth, or so it seemed,

was finding its way into the hands of city mer-

chants. It appeared reasonable that they should

contribute part of that revenue to ease the

shogun’s burden of financing the state. A means

(55) of obtaining such revenue was soon found by

levying forced ioans, known as goyo-kin;

although these were not taxes in the strict sense,

since they were irregular in timing and arbitrary

in amount, they were high in yield. Unfortunately,

(60) they pushed up prices. Thus, regrettably, the

Tokugawa shoguns’ search for solvency for the

government made it increasingly difficult for

individual Japanese who lived on fixed stipends

to make ends meet.

1. The passage is most probably an excerpt from

(A) an economic history of Japan
(B) the memoirs of a samurai warrior

(C) a modern novel about eighteenth-century Japan

(D) an essay contrasting Japanese feudalism with its

Western counterpart

(E) an introduction to a collection of Japanese folktales

2. Which of the following financial situations is most

analogous to the financial situation in which Japan’s

Tokugawa shoguns found themselves in the eighteenth


(A) A small business borrows heavily to invest in new

equipment, but is able to pay off its debt early

when it is awarded a lucrative government contract.

(B) Fire destroys a small business, but insurance covers

the cost of rebuilding.

(C) A small business is turned down for a loan at a

local bank because the owners have no credit


(D) A small business has to struggle to meet operating

expenses when its profits decrease.

(E) A small business is able to cut back sharply on

spending through greater commercial efficiency

and thereby compensate for a loss of revenue.

3. Which of the following best describes the attitude of

the author toward the samurai discussed in lines


(A) Warmly approving

(B) Mildly sympathetic

(C) Bitterly disappointed

(D) Harshly disdainful

(E) Profoundly shocked

4. According to the passage, the major reason for the

financial problems experienced by Japan’s feudal

overlords in the eighteenth century was that

(A) spending had outdistanced income

(B) trade had fallen off

(C) profits from mining had declined

(D) the coinage had been sharply debased

(E) the samurai had concentrated in castle-towns

5.The passage implies that individual samurai did not

find it easy to recover from debt for which of the

following reasons?

(A) Agricultural production had increased.

(B) Taxes were irregular in timing and arbitrary in


(C) The Japanese government had failed to adjust to

the needs of a changing economy.

(D) The domains of samurai overlords were

becoming smaller and poorer as government

revenues increased.

(E) There was a limit to the amount in taxes that

farmers could be made to pay.

6. The passage suggests that, in eighteenth-century

Japan, the office of tax collector

(A) was a source of personal profit to the officeholder

(B) was regarded with derision by many Japanese

(C) remained within families

(D) existed only in castle-towns

(E) took up most of the officeholder’s time

7. Which of the following could best be substituted

for the word “This ” in line 47 without changing the

meaning of the passage?

(A) The search of Japan’s Tokugawa shoguns for


(B) The importance of commerce in feudal Japan

(C) The unfairness of the tax structure in eighteenth-

century Japan

(D) The difficulty of increasing government income by

other means

(E) The difficulty experienced by both individual

samurai and the shogun himself in extricating

themselves from debt

8. The passage implies that which of the following was

the primary reason why the Tokugawa shoguns

turned to city merchants for help in financing the


(A) A series of costly wars had depleted the national


(B) Most of the country’s wealth appeared to be in

city merchants’ hands.

(C) Japan had suffered a series of economic

reversals due to natural disasters such as


(D) The merchants were already heavily indebted to

the shoguns.

(E) Further reclamation of land would not have been

economically advantageous.

9. According to the passage, the actions of the Tokugawa

shoguns in their search for solvency for the government

were regrettable because those actions

(A) raised the cost of living by pushing up prices

(B) resulted in the exhaustion of the most easily

worked deposits of silver and gold

(C) were far lower in yield than had originally been


(D) did not succeed in reducing government spending

(E) acted as a deterrent to trade

Passage 7

Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A.D., the

Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled

economic and cultural revival, a recovery that is all the

more striking because it followed a long period of severe

(5) internal decline. By the early eighth century, the empire

had lost roughly two-thirds of the territory it had

possessed in the year 600, and its remaining area was

being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians, who at times

threatened to take Constantinople and extinguish the

(10) empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its

subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary

production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh

century, however, the empire had regained almost half of

its lost possessions, its new frontiers were secure, and its

(15) influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy

had recovered, the treasury was full, and art and scho-

larship had advanced.

To consider the Byzantine military, cultural, and

economic advances as differentiated aspects of a single

(20) phenomenon is reasonable. After all, these three forms

of progress have gone together in a number of states and

civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth-century

Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity.

Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential

(25) connections among military, economic, and cultural

forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of

historical change.

The common explanation of these apparent conn-

ections in the case of Byzantium would run like this:

(30) when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its

own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy

territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and

more money became available to patronize art and lit-

erature. Therefore, Byzantine military achievements led to

(35) economic advances, which in turn led to cultural revival.

No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times

during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that

military advances invariably came first. economic

advances second, and intellectual advances third. In the

(40) 860’s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab

incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the

Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the

empire’s favor. The beginning of the empire’s economic

revival, however, can be placed between 810 and 830.

(45) Finally, the Byzantine revival of learning appears to

have begun even earlier. A number of notable scholars

and writers appeared by 788 and, by the last decade of

the eighth century, a cultural revival was in full bloom, a

revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in

(50) 1453.Thus the commonly expected order of military

revival followed by economic and then by cultural

recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact, the revival

of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the

subsequent economic and military expansion.

1. Which of the following best states the central idea of

the passage?

(A) The Byzantine Empire was a unique case in

which the usual order of military and economic

revival preceding cultural revival was reversed.

(B) The economic, cultural, and military revival in the

Byzantine Empire between the eighth and

eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the

sequence of revivals in Augustan Rome and fifth-

century Athens.

(C) After 810 Byzantine economic recovery spurred a

military and, later, cultural expansion that lasted

until 1453.

(D) The eighth-century revival of Byzantine learning

is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic

and military precursors have yet to be discovered.

(E) The revival of the Byzantine Empire between the

eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural

rebirth preceding economic and military revival,

the reverse of the commonly accepted order of


2. The primary purpose of the second paragraph is

which of the following?

(A) To establish the uniqueness of the Byzantine


(B) To show that Augustan Rome and fifth-century

Athens are examples of cultural, economic, and

military expansion against which all subsequent

cases must be measured
(C) To suggest that cultural, economic. and military

advances have tended to be closely interrelated in

different societies.

(D) To argue that, while the revivals of Augustan

Rome and fifth-century Athens were similar, they

are unrelated to other historical examples

(E) To indicate that, wherever possible, historians

should seek to make comparisons with the

earliest chronological examples of revival

3. It can be inferred from the passage that by the

eleventh century the Byzantine military forces

(A) had reached their peak and begun to decline

(B) had eliminated the Bulgarian army

(C) were comparable in size to the army of Rome

under Augustus

(D) were strong enough to withstand the Abbasid

Caliphate’s military forces

(E) had achieved control of Byzantine governmental


4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Byzantine

Empire sustained significant territorial losses

(A) in 600

(B) during the seventh century

(C) a century after the cultural achievements of the

Byzantine Empire had been lost

(D) soon after the revival of Byzantine learning

(E) in the century after 873

5. In the third paragraph, the author most probably

provides an explanation of the apparent connections

among economic, military, and cultural development

in order to

(A) suggest that the process of revival in Byzantium

accords with this model

(B) set up an order of events that is then shown to be

not generally applicable to the case of Byzantium

(C) cast aspersions on traditional historical

scholarship about Byzantium

(D) suggest that Byzantium represents a case for

which no historical precedent exists

(E) argue that military conquest is the paramount

element in the growth of empires

6. Which of the following does the author mention as

crucial evidence concerning the manner in which

the Byzantine revival began?

(A) The Byzantine military revival of the 860’s led to

economic and cultural advances.

(B) The Byzantine cultural revival lasted until 1453.

(C) The Byzantine economic recovery began in the


(D) The revival of Byzantine learning began toward

the end of the eighth century.

(E) By the early eleventh century the Byzantine

Empire had regained much of its lost territory.

7. According to the author, “The common explanation”

(line 28) of connections between economic, military,

and cultural development is

(A) revolutionary and too new to have been applied

to the history of the Byzantine Empire

(B) reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature

of progress

(C) not applicable to the Byzantine revival as a whole,

but does perhaps accurately describe limited

periods during the revival

(D) equally applicable to the Byzantine case as a

whole and to the history of military, economic,

and cultural advances in ancient Greece and


(E) essentially not helpful, because military, economic,

and cultural advances are part of a single


Passage 8

Virtually everything astronomers known about objects

outside the solar system is based on the detection of

photons-quanta of electromagnetic radiation. Yet there

is another form of radiation that permeates the universe:

(5) neutrinos. With (as its name implies) no electric charge,

and negligible mass, the neutrino interacts with other

particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire

universe, even traversing substantial aggregations of

matter, without being absorbed or even deflected. Neu-

(10) trinos can thus escape from regions of space where light

and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation are blocked

by matter. Furthermore, neutrinos carry with them

information about the site and circumstances of their

production: therefore, the detection of cosmic neutrinos

(15) could provide new information about a wide variety of

cosmic phenomena and about the history of the uni-


But how can scientists detect a particle that interacts

so infrequently with other matter? Twenty-five years

(20) passed between Pauli’s hypothesis that the neutrino

existed and its actual detection: since then virtually all

research with neutrinos has been with neutrinos created

artificially in large particle accelerators and studied

under neutrino microscopes. But a neutrino telescope,

(25) capable of detecting cosmic neutrinos, is difficult to co-

nstruct. No apparatus can detect neutrinos unless it is

extremely massive, because great mass is synonymous

with huge numbers of nucleons (neutrons and protons),

and the more massive the detector, the greater the pro-

(30) bability of one of its nucleon’s reacting with a neutrino.

In addition, the apparatus must be sufficiently shielded

from the interfering effects of other particles.

Fortunately, a group of astrophysicists has proposed

a means of detecting cosmic neutrinos by harnessing the

(35) mass of the ocean. Named DUMAND, for Deep Under-

water Muon and Neutrino Detector, the project calls for

placing an array of light sensors at a depth of five kilo-

meters under the ocean surface. The detecting medium is

the seawater itself: when a neutrino interacts with a

(40)particle in an atom of seawater. the result is a cascade of

electrically charged particles and a flash of light that can

be detected by the sensors. The five kilometers of sea-

water above the sensors will shield them from the interf-

ering effects of other high-energy particles raining down

(45) through the atmosphere.

The strongest motivation for the DUMAND project

is that it will exploit an important source of information

about the universe. The extension of astronomy from

visible light to radio waves to x-rays and gamma rays

(50) never failed to lead to the discovery of unusual objects

such as radio galaxies, quasars, and pulsars. Each of

these discoveries came as a surprise. Neutrino astronomy

will doubtless bring its own share of surprises.

1. Which of the following titles best summarizes the

passage as a whole?

(A) At the Threshold of Neutrino Astronomy

(B) Neutrinos and the History of the Universe

(C) The Creation and Study of Neutrinos

(D) The DUMAND System and How It Works

(E) The Properties of the Neutrino

2. With which of the following statements regarding

neutrino astronomy would the author be most likely

to agree?

(A) Neutrino astronomy will supersede all present

forms of astronomy.

(B) Neutrino astronomy will be abandoned if the

DUMAND project fails.

(C) Neutrino astronomy can be expected to lead to

major breakthroughs in astronomy.

(D) Neutrino astronomy will disclose phenomena that

will be more surprising than past discoveries.

(E) Neutrino astronomy will always be characterized

by a large time lag between hypothesis and

experimental confirmation.

3. In the last paragraph, the author describes the

development of astronomy in order to

(A) suggest that the potential findings of neutrino

astronomy can be seen as part of a series of

astronomical successes

(B) illustrate the role of surprise in scientific discovery

(C) demonstrate the effectiveness of the DUMAND

apparatus in detecting neutrinos

(D) name some cosmic phenomena that neutrino

astronomy will illuminate

(E) contrast the motivation of earlier astronomers with

that of the astrophysicists working on the

DUMAND project

4.According to the passage, one advantage that neutrinos

have for studies in astronomy is that they

(A) have been detected for the last twenty-five years

(B) possess a variable electric charge
(C) are usually extremely massive

(D) carry information about their history with them

(E) are very similar to other electromagnetic particles

5. According to the passage, the primary use of the

apparatus mentioned in lines 24-32 would be to

(A) increase the mass of a neutrino
(B) interpret the information neutrinos carry with them
(C) study the internal structure of a neutrino

(D) see neutrinos in distant regions of space

(E) detect the presence of cosmic neutrinos

6. The passage states that interactions between neutrinos

and other matter are

(A) rare

(B) artificial

(C) undetectable

(D) unpredictable

(E) hazardous

7. The passage mentions which of the following as a

reason that neutrinos are hard to detect?

(A) Their pervasiveness in the universe
(B) Their ability to escape from different regions of


(C) Their inability to penetrate dense matter

(D) The similarity of their structure to that of nucleons

(E) The infrequency of their interaction with other


8. According to the passage, the interaction of a neutrino

with other matter can produce

(A) particles that are neutral and massive

(B) a form of radiation that permeates the universe

(C) inaccurate information about the site and

circumstances of the neutrino’s production

(D) charged particles and light

(E) a situation in which light and other forms of

electromagnetic radiation are blocked

9. According to the passage, one of the methods used to

establish the properties of neutrinos was

(A) detection of photons

(B) observation of the interaction of neutrinos with

gamma rays

(C) observation of neutrinos that were artificially


(D) measurement of neutrinos that interacted with

particles of seawater

(E) experiments with electromagnetic radiation

Passage 9

Most economists in the united States seem

captivated by the spell of the free market. Conse-

quently, nothing seems good or normal that does

not accord with the requirements of the free market.

(5) A price that is determined by the seller or, for

that matter, established by anyone other than the

aggregate of consumers seems pernicious. Accord-

ingly, it requires a major act of will to think of

price-fixing (the determination of prices by the

(10) seller) as both “normal” and having a valuable

economic function. In fact, price-fixing is normal

in all industrialized societies because the indus-

trial system itself provides, as an effortless conse-

quence of its own development, the price-fixing

(15) that it requires. Modern industrial planning

requires and rewards great size. Hence,

a comparatively small number of large firms will

be competing for the same group of consumers.

That each large firm will act with consideration of

(20) its own needs and thus avoid selling its products

for more than its competitors charge is commonly

recognized by advocates of free-market economic

theories. But each large firm will also act with

full consideration of the needs that it has in

(25) common with the other large firms competing for

the same customers. Each large firm will thus

avoid significant price-cutting, because price-

cutting would be prejudicial to the common interest

in a stable demand for products. Most economists

(30) do not see price-fixing when it occurs because

they expect it to be brought about by a number of

explicit agreements among large firms; it is not.

Moreover, those economists who argue that

allowing the free market to operate without inter-

(35) ference is the most efficient method of establishing

prices have not considered the economies of non-

socialist countries other than the United states.

These economies employ intentional price-fixing,

usually in an overt fashion. Formal price-fixing

(40) by cartel and informal price-fixing by agreements

covering the members of an industry are common-

place. Were there something peculiarly efficient

about the free market and inefficient about price-

fixing, the countries that have avoided the first

(45) and used the second would have suffered drastically

in their economic development. There is no indica-

tion that they have.

Socialist industry also works within a frame-

work of controlled prices. In the early 1970’s,

(50) the Soviet Union began to give firms and industries

some of the flexibility in adjusting prices that a

more informal evolution has accorded the capitalist

system. Economists in the United States have

hailed the change as a return to the free market.

(55) But Soviet firms are no more subject to prices

established by a free market over which they

exercise little influence than are capitalist firms;

rather, Soviet firms have been given the power to

fix prices.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) refute the theory that the free market plays a

useful role in the development of industrialized


(B) suggest methods by which economists and members

of the government of the United States can

recognize and combat price-fixing by large firms

(C) show that in industrialized societies price-fixing and

the operation of the free market are not only

compatible but also mutually beneficial

(D) explain the various ways in which industrialized

societies can fix prices in order to stabilize the free


(E) argue that price-fixing, in one form or another, is an

inevitable part of and benefit to the economy of any

industrialized society

2. The passage provides information that would answer

which of the following questions about price-fixing?

Ⅰ.What are some of the ways in which prices can be


Ⅱ. For what products is price-fixing likely to be more

profitable that the operation of the free market?

Ⅲ.Is price-fixing more common in socialist

industrialized societies or in nonsocialist

industrialized societies?

(A) Ⅰonly
(B) Ⅲ only
(C) Ⅰand Ⅱonly

(D) Ⅱand Ⅲ only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ

3. The author’s attitude toward “Most economists in the

United States”(line 1) can best be described as

(A) spiteful and envious

(B) scornful and denunciatory

(C) critical and condescending

(D) ambivalent but deferential

(E) uncertain but interested

4. It can be inferred from the author’s argument that a

price fixed by the seller “seems pernicious”(line 7)


(A) people do not have confidence in large firms

(B) people do not expect the government to

regulate prices

(C) most economists believe that consumers as a

group should determine prices

(D) most economists associate fixed prices with

communist and socialist economies

(E) most economists believe that no one group

should determine prices

5. The suggestion in the passage that price-fixing in

industrialized societies is normal arises from the

author’s statement that price-fixing is

(A) a profitable result of economic development

(B) an inevitable result of the industrial system

(C) the result of a number of carefully organized


(D) a phenomenon common to industrialized and

nonindustrialized societies

(E) a phenomenon best achieved cooperatively by

government and industry

6. According to the author, price-fixing in nonsocialist

countries is often

(A) accidental but productive

(B) illegal but useful

(C) legal and innovative

(D) traditional and rigid

(E) intentional and widespread

7. According to the author, what is the result of the Soviet

Union’s change in economic policy in the 1970’s

(A) Soviet firms show greater profit.

(B) Soviet firms have less control over the free market.

(C) Soviet firms are able to adjust to tech nological


(D) Soviet firms have some authority to fix prices.

(E) Soviet firms are more responsive to the free market.

8. With which of the following statements regarding the

behavior of large firms in industrialized societies

would the author be most likely to agree?

(A) The directors of large firms will continue to

anticipate the demand for products

(B) The directors of large firms are less interested in

achieving a predictable level of profit than in

achieving a large profit.

(C) The directors of large firms will strive to reduce the

costs of their products

(D) Many directors of large firms believe that the

government should establish the prices that will be

charged for products

(E) Many directors of large firms believe that the price

charged for products is likely to increase annually.

9. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with

(A) predicting the consequences of a practice

(B) criticizing a point of view

(C) calling attention to recent discoveries

(D) proposing a topic for research

(E) summarizing conflicting opinions

Passage 10

Caffeine, the stimulant in coffee, has been called

“the most widely used psychoactive substance on Earth .”

Synder, Daly and Bruns have recently proposed that

caffeine affects behavior by countering the activity in

(5) the human brain of a naturally occurring chemical called

adenosine. Adenosine normally depresses neuron firing

in many areas of the brain. It apparently does this by

inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters, chemicals

that carry nerve impulses from one neuron to the next.

(10) Like many other agents that affect neuron firing,

adenosine must first bind to specific receptors on

neuronal membranes. There are at least two classes

of these receptors, which have been designated A1 and

A2. Snyder et al propose that caffeine, which is struc-

(15) turally similar to adenosine, is able to bind to both types

of receptors, which prevents adenosine from attaching

there and allows the neurons to fire more readily than

they otherwise would.

For many years, caffeine’s effects have been attri-

(20) buted to its inhibition of the production of phosphodi-

esterase, an enzyme that breaks down the chemical

called cyclic AMP.A number of neurotransmitters exert

their effects by first increasing cyclic AMP concentra-

tions in target neurons. Therefore, prolonged periods at

(25) the elevated concentrations, as might be brought about

by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, could lead to a greater

amount of neuron firing and, consequently, to behav-

ioral stimulation. But Snyder et al point out that the

caffeine concentrations needed to inhibit the production

(30) of phosphodiesterase in the brain are much higher than

those that produce stimulation. Moreover, other com-

pounds that block phosphodiesterase’s activity are not


To buttress their case that caffeine acts instead by pre-

(35) venting adenosine binding, Snyder et al compared the

stimulatory effects of a series of caffeine derivatives with

their ability to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in

the brains of mice. “In general,” they reported, “the ability of the compounds to compete at the receptors

(40) correlates with their ability to stimulate locomotion in

the mouse; i.e., the higher their capacity to bind at the

receptors, the higher their ability to stimulate locomo-

tion.” Theophylline, a close structural relative of caffeine

and the major stimulant in tea, was one of the most

(45) effective compounds in both regards.

There were some apparent exceptions to the general

correlation observed between adenosine-receptor binding

and stimulation. One of these was a compound called

3-isobuty1-1-methylxanthine(IBMX), which bound very

(50) well but actually depressed mouse locomotion. Snyder

et al suggest that this is not a major stumbling block to

their hypothesis. The problem is that the compound has

mixed effects in the brain, a not unusual occurrence with

psychoactive drugs. Even caffeine, which is generally

(55) known only for its stimulatory effects, displays this

property, depressing mouse locomotion at very low

concentrations and stimulating it at higher ones.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) discuss a plan for investigation of a phenomenon

that is not yet fully understood

(B) present two explanations of a phenomenon and

reconcile the differences between them

(C) summarize two theories and suggest a third theory

that overcomes the problems encountered in the first


(D) describe an alternative hypothesis and provide

evidence and arguments that support it

(E) challenge the validity of a theory by exposing the

inconsistencies and contradictions in it

2. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the

theory proposed by Snyder et al?

(A) At very low concentrations in the human brain. both

caffeine and theophylline tend to have depressive

rather than stimulatory effects on human behavior.

(B) The ability of caffeine derivatives at very low

concentrations to dislodge adenosine from its

receptors in mouse brains correlates well with their

ability to stimulate mouse locomotion at these low


(C) The concentration of cyclic AMP in target neurons

in the human brain that leads to increased neuron

firing can be produced by several different

phosphodi esterase inhibitors in addition to caffeine.

(D) The concentration of caffeine required to dislodge

adenosine from its receptors in the human brain is

much greater than the concentration that produces

behavioral stimulation in humans.

(E) The concentration of IBMX required to dislodge

adenosine from its receptors in mouse brains is much

smaller than the concentration that stimulates

locomotion in the mouse.

3. According so Snyder et al, caffeine differs from

adenosine in that caffeine

(A) stimulates behavior in the mouse and in humans,

whereas adenosine stimulates behavior in humans


(B) has mixed effects in the brain, whereas adenosine

has only a stimulatory effect

(C) increases cyclic AMP concentrations in target

neurons, whereas adenosine decreases such


(D) permits release of neurotransmitters when it is

bound to adenosine receptors, whereas adenosine

inhibits such release

(E) inhibits both neuron firing and the production of

phosphodiesterase when there is a sufficient

concentration in the brain, whereas adenosine

inhibits only neuron firing

4. In response to experimental results concerning IBMX,

Snyder et al contended that it is not uncommon for

psychoactive drugs to have

(A) mixed effects in the brain

(B) inhibitory effects on enzymes in the brain

(C) close structural relationships with caffeine

(D) depressive effects on mouse locomotion

(E) the ability to dislodge caffeine from receptors

in the brain

5. The passage suggests that Snyder et al believe that if the

older theory concerning caffeine’s effects were correct,

which of the following would have to be the case?

Ⅰ.All neurotransmitters would increase the short-term

concentration of cyclic AMP in target neurons.

Ⅱ.Substances other than caffeine that inhibit the

production of phosphodiesterase would be stimulants.

Ⅲ.All concentration levels of caffeine that are high

enough to produce stimulation would also inhibit the

production of phosphodiesterase.

(A) Ⅰ only

(B) Ⅰ and Ⅱ only

(C) Ⅰand Ⅲ only

(D) Ⅱ and Ⅲ only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ

6. According to Snyder et al, all of the following

compounds can bind to specific receptors in the brain



(B) caffeine

(C) adenosine

(D) theophylline

(E) phosphodiesterase

7. Snyder et al suggest that caffeine’s ability to bind to A1

and A2 receptors can be at least partially attributed to

which of the following?

(A) The chemical relationship between caffeine and


(B) The structural relationship between caffeine and


(C) The structural similarity between caffeine and


(D) The ability of caffeine to stimulate behavior

(E) The natural occurrence of caffeine and adenosine in

the brain

8. The author quotes Snyder et al in lines 38-43 most

probably in order to

(A) reveal some of the assumptions underlying their


(B) summarize a major finding of their experiments

(C) point out that their experiments were limited to the


(D) indicate that their experiments resulted only in

general correlations

(E) refute the objections made by supporters of the older


9. The last paragraph of the passage performs which of the

following functions?

(A) Describes a disconfirming experimental result

and reports the explanation given by Snyder et al in

an attempt to reconcile this result with their theory.

(B) Specifies the basis for the correlation observed by

Snyder et al and presents an explanation in an

attempt to make the correlation consistent with the

operation of psychoactive drugs other than caffeine.

(C) Elaborates the description of the correlation

observed by Snyder et al and suggests an additional

explanation in an attempt to make the correlation

consistent with the older theory.

(D) Reports inconsistent experimental data and

describes the method Snyder et al will use to

reanalyze this data.

(E) Provides an example of the hypothesis proposed by

Snyder et al and relates this example to caffeine’s


Passage 11

Archaeology as a profession faces two major prob-

lems. First, it is the poorest of the poor. Only paltry

sums are available for excavating and even less is avail-

able for publishing the results and preserving the sites

(5) once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless

objects every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal

excavation, resulting in museum-quality pieces being

sold to the highest bidder.

I would like to make an outrageous suggestion that

(10) would at one stroke provide funds for archaeology and

reduce the amount of illegal digging. I would propose

that scientific archeological expeditions and govern-

mental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open

market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for

(15) the excavation and preservation of archaeological sites

and the publication of results. At the same time, they

would break the illegal excavator’s grip on the market,

thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in illegal


(20) You might object that professionals excavate to

acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient arti-

facts are part of our global cultural heritage, which

should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the

highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that has unique

(25) artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply,

everything that comes our of the ground has scientific

value. Here we part company. Theoretically, you may be

correct in claiming that every artifact has potential scien-

tific value. Practically, you are wrong.

(30) I refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient

lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another. In

one small excavation in Cyprus, archaeologists recently

uncovered 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs in

a single courtyard, Even precious royal seal impressions

(35) known as/melekh handles have been found in abun-

dance—more than 4,000 examples so far.

The basements of museums are simply not large

enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be discov-

ered in the future. There is not enough money even to

(40) catalogue the finds; as a result, they cannot be found

again and become as inaccessible as if they had never

been discovered. Indeed, with the help of a computer,

sold artifacts could be more accessible than are the

pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to

(45) sale, each could be photographed and the list of the

purchasers could be maintained on the computer A

purchaser could even be required to agree to return the

piece if it should become needed for scientific purposes.

It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging

(50) would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market.

But the demand for the clandestine product would be

substantially reduced. Who would want an unmarked

pot when another was available whose provenance was

known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the

professional archaeologist who excavated it?

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to propose

(A) an alternative to museum display of artifacts

(B) a way to curb illegal digging while benefiting the

archaeological profession

(C) a way to distinguish artifacts with scientific value

from those that have no such value

(D) the governmental regulation of archaeological sites

(E) a new system for cataloguing duplicate artifacts

2. The author implies that all of the following statements

about duplicate artifacts are true EXCEPT:

(A) A market for such artifacts already exists.

(B) Such artifacts seldom have scientific value.

(C) There is likely to be a continuing supply of such


(D) Museums are well supplied with examples of such


(E) Such artifacts frequently exceed in quality those

already catalogued in museum collections.

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as a

disadvantage of storing artifacts in museum


(A) Museum officials rarely allow scholars access to

such artifacts.

(B) Space that could be better used for display is taken

up for storage.

(C) Artifacts discovered in one excavation often become

separated from each other.

(D) Such artifacts are often damaged by variations in

temperature and humidity.

(E) Such artifacts’ often remain uncatalogued and thus

cannot be located once they are put in storage.

4. The author mentions the excavation in Cyprus (lines

31-34) to emphasize which of the following points?

(A) Ancient lamps and pottery vessels are less valuable,

although more rare, than royal seal impressions.

(B) Artifacts that are very similar to each other present

cataloguing difficulties to archaeologists.

(C) Artifacts that are not uniquely valuable, and

therefore could be sold, are available in large


(D) Cyprus is the most important location for unearthing

large quantities of salable artifacts.

(E) Illegal sales of duplicate artifacts are wide-spread,

particularly on the island of Cyprus.

5. The author’s argument concerning the effect of the

official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation

is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Prospective purchasers would prefer to buy

authenticated artifacts.

(B) The price of illegally excavated artifacts would rise.

(C) Computers could be used to trace sold artifacts.

(D) Illegal excavators would be forced to sell only

duplicate artifacts.

(E) Money gained from selling authenticated artifacts

could be used to investigate and prosecute illegal


6. The author anticipates which of the following initial

objections to the adoption of his proposal?

(A) Museum officials will become unwilling to store


(B) An oversupply of salable artifacts will result and the

demand for them will fall.

(C) Artifacts that would have been displayed in public

places will be sold to private collectors.

(D) Illegal excavators will have an even larger supply of

artifacts for resale.

(E) Counterfeiting of artifacts will become more


7. The author implies that which of the following would

occur if duplicate artifacts were sold on the open


Ⅰ.Illegal excavation would eventually cease


Ⅱ.Cyprus would become the primary source of

marketable duplicate artifacts

Ⅲ.Archaeologists would be able to publish the

results of their excavations more frequently

than they currently do.

(A) Ⅰonly

(B) Ⅲ only

(C) Ⅰand Ⅱonly

(D) Ⅱ and Ⅲ only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ

Passage 12

Federal efforts to aid minority businesses began in the

1960’s when the Small Business Administration (SBA)

began making federally guaranteed loans and govern-

ment-sponsored management and technical assistance

(5) available to minority business enterprises. While this

program enabled many minority entrepreneurs to

form new businesses, the results were disappointing,

since managerial inexperience, unfavorable locations,

and capital shortages led to high failure rates. Even 15

(10) years after the program was implemented, minority

business receipts were not quite two percent of the national

economy’s total receipts.

Recently federal policymakers have adopted an

approach intended to accelerate development of the

(15) minority business sector by moving away from directly

aiding small minority enterprises and toward supporting

larger, growth-oriented minority firms through interme-

diary companies. In this approach, large corporations

participate in the development of successful and stable

(20) minority businesses by making use of government-

sponsored venture capital. The capital is used by a

participating company to establish a Minority Enterprise

Small Business Investment Company or MESBIC. The

MESBIC then provides capital and guidance to minority

(25) businesses that have potential to become future suppliers

or customers of the sponsoring company.

MESBIC’s are the result of the belief that providing

established firms with easier access to relevant manage-

ment techniques and more job-specific experience, as

(30) well as substantial amounts of capital, gives those firms

a greater opportunity to develop sound business founda-

tions than does simply making general management

experience and small amounts of capital available.

Further, since potential markets for the minority busi-

(35) nesses already exist through the sponsoring companies,

the minority businesses face considerably less risk in

terms of location and market fluctuation. Following

early financial and operating problems, sponsoring

corporations began to capitalize MESBIC’s far above

(40) the legal minimum of $500,000 in order to generate

sufficient income and to sustain the quality of manage-

ment needed. MESBIC’c are now emerging as increas-

ingly important financing sources for minority enter-


(45) Ironically, MESBIC staffs, which usually consist of

Hispanic and Black professionals, tend to approach

investments in minority firms more pragmatically than

do many MESBIC directors, who are usually senior

managers from sponsoring corporations. The latter

(50) often still think mainly in terms of the “social responsi-

bility approach” and thus seem to prefer deals that are

riskier and less attractive than normal investment criteria

would warrant. Such differences in viewpoint have pro-

duced uneasiness among many minority staff members,

(55) who feel that minority entrepreneurs and businesses

should be judged by established business considerations.

These staff members believe their point of view is closer

to the original philosophy of MESBIC’s and they are

concerned that, unless a more prudent course is fol-

lowed, MESBIC directors may revert to policies likely to re-create the disappointing results of the original SBA


1. Which of the following best states the central idea of

the passage?

(A) The use of MESBIC’s for aiding minority

entrepreneurs seems to have greater potential for

success than does the original SBA approach.

(B) There is a crucial difference in point of view

between the staff and directors of some MESBIC’s.

(C) After initial problems with management and

marketing, minority businesses have begun to

expand at a steady rate.

(D) Minority entrepreneurs wishing to form new

businesses now have several equally successful

federal programs on which to rely.

(E) For the first time since 1960, large corporations are

making significant contributions to the development

of minority businesses.

2. According to the passage, the MESBIC approach

differs from the SBA approach in that MESBIC’s

(A) seek federal contracts to provide markets

for minority businesses

(B) encourage minority businesses to provide markets

for other minority businesses

(C) attempt to maintain a specified rate of growth in the

minority business sector

(D) rely on the participation of large corporations to

finance minority businesses

(E) select minority businesses on the basis of their


3. Which of the following does the author cite to support

the conclusion that the results of the SBA program

were disappointing?

(A) The small number of new minority enterprises

formed as a result of the program

(B) The small number of minority enterprises that took

advantage of the management and technical

assistance offiered under the program

(C) The small percentage of the nation’s business

receipts earned by minority enterprises following

the programs, implementation.

(D) The small percentage of recipient minority

enterprises that were able to repay federally

guaranteed loans made under the program

(E) The small number of minority enterprises that

chose to participate in the program

4. Which of the following statements about the SBA

program can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The maximum term for loans made to recipient

businesses was 15 years.

(B) Business loans were considered to be more useful to

recipient businesses than was management and

technical assistance.

(C) The anticipated failure rate for recipient businesses

was significantly lower than the rate that actually


(D) Recipient businesses were encouraged to relocate to

areas more favorable for business development.

(E) The capitalization needs of recipient businesses were

assessed and then provided for adequately.

5. Based on information in the passage, which of the

following would be indicative of the pragmatism of

MESBIC staff members?

Ⅰ.A reluctance to invest in minority businesses

that show marginal expectations of return on

the investments

Ⅱ. A desire to invest in minority businesses that

produce goods and services likely to be of use to the

sponsoring company

Ⅲ. A belief that the minority business sector is best

served by investing primarily in newly established



(B) Ⅲ only

(C)Ⅰand Ⅱ only

(D)Ⅱ and Ⅲ only

(E)Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ

6. The author refers to the “financial and operating

problems”(line 38 ) encountered by MESBIC’s

primarily in order to

(A) broaden the scope of the discussion to include the

legal considerations of funding MESBIC’S through

sponsoring companies

(B) call attention to the fact that MESBIC’s must

receive adequate funding in order to function


(C) show that sponsoring companies were willing to

invest only $500,000 of government-sponsored

venture capital in the original MESBIC’s

(D) compare SBA and MESBIC limits on minimum


(E) refute suggestions that MESBIC’s have been only

marginally successful

7. The author’s primary objective in the passage is to

(A) disprove the view that federal efforts to aid minority

businesses have been ineffective

(B) explain how federal efforts to aid minority

businesses have changed since the 1960’s

(C) establish a direct link between the federal efforts

to aid minority businesses made before the 1960’s

and those made in the 1980’s

(D) analyze the basis for the belief that job-specific

experience is more useful to minority businesses

than is general management experience

(E) argue that the “social responsibility approach” to

aiding minority businesses is superior to any

other approach

8. It can be inferred from the passage that the attitude of

some MESBIC staff members toward the investments

preferred by some MESBIC directors can best be

described as

(A) defensive

(B) resigned

(C) indifferent

(D) shocked

(E) disapproving

9. The passage provides information that would answer

which of the following questions?

(A) What was the average annual amount, in dollars, of

minority business receipts before the SBA strategy

was implemented?

(B) What locations are considered to be unfavorable for

minority businesses?

(C) What is the current success rate for minority

businesses that are capitalized by MESBIC’s?

(D) How has the use of federal funding for minority

businesses changed since the 1960’s?

(E) How do minority businesses apply to participate in

a MESBIC program?

Passage 13

The majority of successful senior managers do not

closely follow the classical rational model of first clari-

fying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options,

estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision,

(5) and only then taking action to implement the decision.

Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these

senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed “intu-

ition” to mangage a network of interrelated problems

that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency,

(10) novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the

process to thinking.

Generations of writers on management have recog-

nized that some practicing managers rely heavily on

intuition. In general, however, such writers display a

(15) poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the oppo-

site of rationality: others view it as an excuse for ca-


Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes

of senior managers reveals that managers’ intuition is

(20) neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition

in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense

when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intu-

ition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly.

This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based

(25) on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experi-

ence that build skills. A third function of intuition is to

synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an inte-

grated picture, often in an “Aha!” experience. Fourth,

some managers use intuition as a check on the results

(30) of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are

familiar with the formal decision analysis models and

tools, and those who use such systematic methods for

reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions

suggested by these methods which run counter to their

(35) sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers

can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move

rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this

way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive

process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns.

(40) One of the implications of the intuitive style of execu-

tive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from

acting. Since managers often “know” what is right

before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently

act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied

(45) to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers

develop thoughts about their companies and organiza-

tions not by analyzing a problematic situation and then

acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert.

Given the great uncertainty of many of the manage-

(50) ment issues that they face, senior managers often insti-

gate a course of action simply to learn more about an

issue. They then use the results of the action to develop

a more complete understanding of the issue. One impli-

cation of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often

(55) part of defining the problem, not just of implementing

the solution.

1. According to the passage, senior managers use

intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to

(A) speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem

(B) identify a problem

(C) bring together disparate facts

(D) stipulate clear goals

(E) evaluate possible solutions to a problem

2. The passage suggests which of the following about the

“writers on management” mentioned in line 12?

(A) They have criticized managers for not following

the classical rational model of decision analysis.

(B) They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently

large sample of actual managers.

(C) They have relied in drawing their conclusions on

what managers say rather than on what managers do.

(D) They have misunderstood how managers use

intuition in making business decisions.

(E) They have not acknowledged the role of intuition in

managerial practice.

3. Which of the following best exemplifies “an ‘Aha!’

experience” (line 28) as it is presented in the passage?

(A) A manager risks taking an action whose outcome is

unpredictable to discover whether the action changes

the problem at hand.

(B) A manager performs well-learned and familiar

behavior patterns in creative and uncharacteristic

ways to solve a problem.

(C) A manager suddenly connects seemingly unrelated

facts and experiences to create a pattern relevant to

the problem at hand.

(D) A manager rapidly identifies the methodology used

to compile data yielded by systematic analysis.

(E) A manager swiftly decides which of several sets of

tactics to implement in order to deal with the conti –

ngencies suggested by a problem.

4. According to the passage, the classical model of

decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT

(A) evaluation of a problem

(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem

(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the


(D) action undertaken in order to discover more

information about a problem

(E) comparison of the probable effects of different

solutions to a problem

5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the

following would most probably be one major difference

in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to

reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal

decision analysis?

(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager

Y does not.

(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem

by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not

(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the

solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.

(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience

in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X

does not.

(E) Manger Y depends on day-to-day tactical

maneuvering; manager X does not.

6. It can be inferred from the passage that “thinking/acting

cycles” (line 45 ) in managerial practice would be

likely to result in which of the following?

Ⅰ.A manager analyzes a network of problems and then

acts on the basis of that analysis.

Ⅱ. A manager gathers data by acting and observing the

effects of action.

Ⅲ. A manager takes action without being able to

articulate reasons for that particular action.

(A) Ⅰ only

(B) Ⅱ only

(C) Ⅰ and Ⅱ only

(D) Ⅱ and Ⅲ only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ, and Ⅲ

7. The passage provides support for which of the

following statements?

(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more

successful than those who rely on formal

decision analysis.

(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.

(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their

rational and analytical skills

(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the

number of possible solutions.

(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical

experience more efficiently.

8. Which of the following best describes the organization

of the first paragraph of the passage?

(A) An assertion is made and a specific supporting

example is given.

(B) A conventional model is dismissed and an

alternative introduced.

(C) The results of recent research are introduced and


(D) Two opposing points of view are presented and


(E) A widely accepted definition is presented and


Passage 14

Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they

separated an invertebrate animal embryo into two parts

at an early stage of its life, it would survive and develop

as two normal embryos. This led them to believe that the

(5) cells in the early embryo are undetermined in the sense

that each cell has the potential to develop in a variety of

different ways. Later biologists found that the situation

was not so simple. It matters in which plane the embryo

is cut. If it is cut in a plane different from the one used

(10) by the early investigators, it will not form two whole


A debate arose over what exactly was happening.

Which embryo cells are determined, just when do they-

become irreversibly committed to their fates, and what

(15) are the “morphogenetic determinants” that tell a cell

what to become? But the debate could not be resolved

because no one was able to ask the crucial questions

in a form in which they could be pursued productively.

Recent discoveries in molecular biology, however, have

(20) opened up prospects for a resolution of the debate.

Now investigators think they know at least some of the

molecules that act as morphogenetic determinants in

early development. They have been able o show that,

in a sense, cell determination begins even before an egg

(25) is fertilized.

Studying sea urchins, biologist Paul Gross found

that an unfertilized egg contains substances that func-

tion as morphogenetic determinants. They are located

in the cytoplasm of the egg cell; i.e., in that part of the

(30) cell’s protoplasm that lies outside of the nucleus. In the

unfertilized egg, the substances are inactive and are not

distributed homogeneously. When the egg is fertilized,

the substances become active and, presumably, govern

the behavior of the genes they interact with. Since the

(35) substances are unevenly distributed in the egg, when the

fertilized egg divides, the resulting cells are different

from the start and so can be qualitatively different in

their own gene activity.

The substances that Gross studied are maternal

(40) messenger RNA’s –products of certain of the maternal

genes. He and other biologists studying a wide variety

of organisms have found that these particular RNA’s

direct, in large part, the synthesis of histones, a class

of proteins that bind to DNA. Once synthesized, the

(45) histones move into the cell nucleus, where section of

DNA wrap around them to form a structure that resem-

bles beads, or knots, on a string. The beads are DNA

segments wrapped around the histones; the string is the

intervening DNA. And it is the structure of these beaded

(50) DNA strings that guides the fate of the cells in which

they are located.

1. The passage is most probably directed at which kind of


(A) State legislators deciding about funding levels for a

state-funded biological laboratory

(B) Scientists specializing in molecular genetics

(C) Readers of an alumni newsletter published by the

college that Paul Gross attended

(D) Marine biologists studying the processes that give

rise to new species

(E) Undergraduate biology majors in a molecular

biology course

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the

morphogenetic determinants present in the

early embryo are

(A) located in the nucleus of the embryo cells

(B) evenly distributed unless the embryo is not

developing normally

(C) inactive until the embryo cells become irreversibly

committed to their final function

(D) identical to those that were already present in the

unfertilized egg

(E) present in larger quantities than is necessary for the

development of a single individual

3. The main topic of the passage is

(A) the early development of embryos of lower marine


(B) the main contribution of modern embryology to

molecular biology

(C) the role of molecular biology in disproving older

theories of embryonic development

(D) cell determination as an issue in the study of

embryonic development

(E) scientific dogma as a factor in the recent debate over

the value of molecular biology

4. According to the passage, when biologists believed that

the cells in the early embryo were undetermined, they

made which of the following mistakes?

(A) They did not attempt to replicate the original

experiment of separating an embryo into two parts.

(B) They did not realize that there was a connection

between the issue of cell determination and the

outcome of the separation experiment.

(C) They assumed that the results of experiments on

embryos did not depend on the particular animal

species used for such experiments.

(D) They assumed that it was crucial to perform the

separation experiment at an early stage in the

embryo’s life.

(E) They assumed that different ways of separating an

embryo into two parts would be equivalent as far

as the fate of the two parts was concerned.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the initial

production of histones after an egg is fertilized takes


(A) in the cytoplasm

(B) in the maternal genes

(C) throughout the protoplasm

(D) in the beaded portions of the DNA strings

(E) in certain sections of the cell nucleus

6. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the

following is dependent on the fertilization of an egg?

(A) Copying of maternal genes to produce maternal

messenger RNA’s

(B) Sythesis of proteins called histones

(C) Division of a cell into its nucleus and the cytoplasm

(D) Determination of the egg cell’s potential for division

(E) Generation of all of a cell’s morphogenetic


7. According to the passage, the morphogenetic

determinants present in the unfertilized egg cell are

which of the following?

(A) Proteins bound to the nucleus

(B) Histones

(C) Maternal messenger RNA’s

(D) Cytoplasm

(E) Nonbeaded intervening DNA

8. The passage suggests that which of the following plays a

role in determining whether an embryo separated into

two parts will two parts will develop as two normal


Ⅰ.The stage in the embryo’s life at which the separation


Ⅱ. The instrument with which the separations is


Ⅲ. The plane in which the cut is made that separates

the embryo

(A) Ⅰonly

(B) Ⅱ only

(C) Ⅰ and Ⅱ.only

(D) Ⅰ and Ⅲ.only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ, and Ⅲ

9. Which of the following circumstances is most

comparable to the impasse biologists encountered in

trying to resolve the debate about cell determination

(lines 12-18)?

(A) The problems faced by a literary scholar who wishes

to use original source materials that are written in

an unfamiliar foreign language

(B) The situation of a mathematician who in preparing a

proof of a theorem for publication detects a

reasoning error in the proof

(C) The difficulties of a space engineer who has to

design equipment to function in an environment in

which it cannot first be tested

(D) The predicament of a linguist trying to develop a

theory of language acquisition when knowledge of

the structure of language itself is rudimentary at best

(E) The dilemma confronting a foundation when the

funds available to it are sufficient to support one of

two equally deserving scientific projects but not both

Passage 15

In the two decades between 1910 and 1930, over

ten percent to the Black population of the United States

left the South, where the preponderance of the Black

population had been located, and migrated to northern

(5) states, with the largest number moving, it is claimed,

between 1916 and 1918. It has been frequently assumed,

but not proved, that the majority of the migrants in

what has come to be called the Great Migration came

from rural areas and were motivated by two concurrent

(10) factors: the collapse of the cotton industry following

the boll weevil infestation, which began in 1898, and

increased demand in the North for labor following

the cessation of European immigration caused by the

outbreak of the First World War in 1914. This assump-

(15) tion has led to the conclusion that the migrants’ subse-

quent lack of economic mobility in the North is tied to

rural background, a background that implies unfamil-

iarity with urban living and a lack of industrial skills.

But the question of who actually left the South has

(20) never been rigorously investigated. Although numerous

investigations document an exodus from rural southern

areas to southern cities prior to the Great Migration.

no one has considered whether the same migrants then

moved on to northern cities. In 1910 over 600,000

(25) Black workers, or ten percent of the Black work force,

reported themselves to be engaged in “manufacturing

and mechanical pursuits,” the federal census category

roughly encompassing the entire industrial sector. The

Great Migration could easily have been made up entirely

(30) of this group and their families. It is perhaps surprising

to argue that an employed population could be enticed

to move, but an explanation lies in the labor conditions

then prevalent in the South.

About thirty-five percent of the urban Black popu-

(35) lation in the South was engaged in skilled trades. Some

were from the old artisan class of slavery-blacksmiths.

masons, carpenters-which had had a monopoly of

certain trades, but they were gradually being pushed

out by competition, mechanization, and obsolescence,

(40) The remaining sixty-five percent, more recently urban-

ized, worked in newly developed industries—tobacco.

lumber, coal and iron manufacture, and railroads.

Wages in the South, however, were low, and Black

workers were aware, through labor recruiters and the

(45)Black press, that they could earn more even as unskilled

workers in the North than they could as artisans in the

South. After the boll weevil infestation, urban Black

workers faced competition from the continuing influx

of both Black and White rural workers, who were driven

(50) to undercut the wages formerly paid for industrial jobs.

Thus, a move north would be seen as advantageous

to a group that was already urbanized and steadily

employed, and the easy conclusion tying their subse-

quent economic problems in the North to their rural

background comes into question.

1. The author indicates explicitly that which of the

following records has been a source of information in

her investigation?

(A) United States Immigration Service reports from

1914 to 1930

(B) Payrolls of southern manufacturing firms between

1910 and 1930

(C) The volume of cotton exports between 1898 and


(D) The federal census of 1910

(E) Advertisements of labor recruiters appearing in

southern newspapers after 1910

2. In the passage, the author anticipates which of the

following as a possible objection to her argument?

(A) It is uncertain how many people actually migrated

during the Great Migration.

(B) The eventual economic status of the Great Migration

migrants has not been adequately traced.

(C) It is not likely that people with steady jobs would

have reason to move to another area of the country.

(D) It is not true that the term “manufacturing and

mechanical pursuits” actually encompasses the

entire industrial sector.

(E) Of the Black workers living in southern cities, only

those in a small number of trades were threatened by


3. According to the passage, which of the following is true

of wages in southern cities in 1910?

(A) They were being pushed lower as a result of

increased competition.

(B) They had begun t to rise so that southern industry

could attract rural workers.

(C) They had increased for skilled workers but

decreased for unskilled workers.

(D) They had increased in large southern cities but

decreased in small southern cities.

(E) They had increased in newly developed industries

but decreased in the older trades.

4. The author cites each of the following as possible

influences in a Black worker’s decision to migrate

north in the Great Migration EXCEPT

(A) wage levels in northern cities

(B) labor recruiters

(C) competition from rural workers

(D) voting rights in northern states

(E) the Black press

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the “easy

conclusion” mentioned in line 53 is based on which

of the following assumptions?

(A) People who migrate from rural areas to large

cities usually do so for economic reasons.

(B) Most people who leave rural areas to take jobs in

cities return to rural areas as soon as it is financially

possible for them to do so.

(C) People with rural backgrounds are less likely to

succeed economically in cities than are those with

urban backgrounds.

(D) Most people who were once skilled workers are

not willing to work as unskilled workers.

(E) People who migrate from their birthplaces to other

regions of country seldom undertake a second


6. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) support an alternative to an accepted methodology

(B) present evidence that resolves a contradiction

(C) introduce a recently discovered source of


(D) challenge a widely accepted explanation

(E) argue that a discarded theory deserves new attention

7. According to information in the passage, which of the

following is a correct sequence of groups of workers,

from highest paid to lowest paid, in the period between

1910 and 1930?

(A) Artisans in the North; artisans in the South;

unskilled workers in the North; unskilled workers in

the South

(B) Artisans in the North and South; unskilled workers

in the North; unskilled workers in the South

(C) Artisans in the North; unskilled workers in the

North; artisans in the South

(D) Artisans in the North and South; unskilled urban

workers in the North; unskilled rural workers in the


(E) Artisans in the North and South, unskilled rural

workers in the North and South; unskilled urban

workers in the North and South

8. The material in the passage would be most relevant to a

long discussion of which of the following topics?

(A) The reasons for the subsequent economic difficulties

of those who participated in the Great Migration

(B) The effect of migration on the regional economies of

the United States following the First World War

(C) The transition from a rural to an urban existence for

those who migrated in the Great Migration

(D) The transformation of the agricultural South

following the boll weevil infestation

(E) The disappearance of the artisan class in the United

States as a consequence of mechanization in the

early twentieth century

Passage 16

In 1896 a Georgia couple suing for damages in the

accidental death of their two year old was told that since

the child had made no real economic contribution to the

family, there was no liability for damages. In contrast,

(5) less than a century later, in 1979, the parents of a three

year old sued in New York for accidental-death damages

and won an award of $750,000.

The transformation in social values implicit in juxta-

posing these two incidents is the subject of Viviana

(10) Zelizer’s excellent book, Pricing the Priceless Child.

During the nineteenth century, she argues, the concept

of the “useful” child who contributed to the family

economy gave way gradually to the present-day notion

of the “useless” child who, though producing no income

(15) for, and indeed extremely costly to, its parents, is yet

considered emotionally “priceless.” Well established

among segments of the middle and upper classes by the

mid-1800’s, this new view of childhood spread through-

out society in the iate-nineteenth and early-twentieth

(20) centuries as reformers introduced child-labor regulations

and compulsory education laws predicated in part on the

assumption that a child’s emotional value made child

labor taboo.

For Zelizer the origins of this transformation were

(25) many and complex. The gradual erosion of children’s

productive value in a maturing industrial economy,

the decline in birth and death rates, especially in child

mortality, and the development of the companionate

family (a family in which members were united by

(30) explicit bonds of love rather than duty) were all factors

critical in changing the assessment of children’s worth.

Yet “expulsion of children from the ‘cash nexus,’…

although clearly shaped by profound changes in the

economic, occupational, and family structures,” Zelizer

(35) maintains. “was also part of a cultural process ‘of sacral-

ization’ of children’s lives. ” Protecting children from the

crass business world became enormously important for

late-nineteenth-century middle-class Americans, she

suggests; this sacralization was a way of resisting what

(40) they perceived as the relentless corruption of human

values by the marketplace.

In stressing the cultural determinants of a child’s

worth. Zelizer takes issue with practitioners of the new

“sociological economics,” who have analyzed such tradi-

(45) tionally sociological topics as crime, marriage, educa-

tion, and health solely in terms of their economic deter-

minants. Allowing only a small role for cultural forces

in the form of individual “preferences,” these sociologists

tend to view all human behavior as directed primarily by

(50) the principle of maximizing economic gain. Zelizer is

highly critical of this approach, and emphasizes instead

the opposite phenomenon: the power of social values to

transform price. As children became more valuable in

emotional terms, she argues, their “exchange” or “ sur-

(55) render” value on the market, that is, the conversion of

their intangible worth into cash terms, became much


1. It can be inferred from the passage that accidental-death

damage awards in America during the nineteenth

century tended to be based principally on the

(A) earnings of the person at time of death

(B) wealth of the party causing the death

(C) degree of culpability of the party causing the death

(D) amount of money that had been spent on the person


(E) amount of suffering endured by the family of the

person killed

2. It can be inferred from the passage that in the early

1800’s children were generally regarded by their

families as individuals who

(A) needed enormous amounts of security and affection

(B) required constant supervision while working

(C) were important to the economic well-being of a


(D) were unsuited to spending long hours in school

(E) were financial burdens assumed for the good of


3. which of the following alternative explanations of the

change in the cash value of children would be most

likely to be put forward by sociological economists as

they are described in the passage?

(A) The cash value of children rose during the

nineteenth century because parents began to increase

their emotional investment in the upbringing of

their children.

(B) The cash value of children rose during the

nineteenth century because their expected earnings

over the course of a lifetime increased greatly.

(C) The cash value of children rose during the

nineteenth century because the spread of

humanitarian ideals resulted in a wholesale

reappraisal of the worth of an individual

(D) The cash value of children rose during the

nineteenth century because compulsory education

laws reduced the supply, and thus raised the costs,

of available child labor.

(E) The cash value of children rose during the

nineteenth century because of changes in the way

negligence law assessed damages in accidental-

death cases.

4. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) review the literature in a new academic subfield

(B) present the central thesis of a recent book

(C) contrast two approaches to analyzing historical


(D) refute a traditional explanation of a social


(E) encourage further work on a neglected historical


5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the

following statements was true of American families over

the course of the nineteenth century?

(A) The average size of families grew considerably

(B) The percentage of families involved in industrial

work declined dramatically.

(C) Family members became more emotionally bonded

to one another.

(D) Family members spent an increasing amount of time

working with each other.

(E) Family members became more economically

dependent on each other.

6. Zelizer refers to all of the following as important

influences in changing the assessment of children’s

worth EXCEPT changes in

(A) the mortality rate

(B) the nature of industry

(C) the nature of the family

(D) attitudes toward reform movements

(E) attitudes toward the marketplace

7.Which of the following would be most consistent with

the practices of sociological economics as these

practices are described in the passage?

(A) Arguing that most health-care professionals enter

the field because they believe it to be the most

socially useful of any occupation

(B) Arguing that most college students choose majors

that they believe will lead to the most highly paid

jobs available to them

(C) Arguing that most decisions about marriage and

divorce are based on rational assessments of the

likelihood that each partner will remain committed

to the relationship

(D) Analyzing changes in the number of people enrolled

in colleges and universities as a function of changes

in the economic health of these institutions

(E) Analyzing changes in the ages at which people get

married as a function of a change in the average

number of years that young people have lived away

from their parents

Passage 17

Prior to 1975, union efforts to organize public-sector

clerical workers, most of whom are women, were some-

what limited. The factors favoring unionization drives

seem to have been either the presence of large numbers

(5) of workers, as in New York City, to make it worth the

effort, or the concentration of small numbers in one or

two locations, such as a hospital, to make it relatively

easy, Receptivity to unionization on the workers, part

was also a consideration, but when there were large

(10) numbers involved or the clerical workers were the only

unorganized group in a jurisdiction, the multioccupa-

tional unions would often try to organize them regard-

less of the workers’ initial receptivity. The strategic

reasoning was based, first, on the concern that politi-

(15) cians and administrators might play off unionized

against nonunionized workers, and, second, on the

conviction that a fully unionized public work force

meant power, both at the bargaining table and in the

legislature. In localities where clerical workers were few

(20) in number, were scattered in several workplaces, and

expressed no interest in being organized, unions more

often than not ignored them in the pre-1975 period.

But since the mid-1970’s, a different strategy has

emerged. In 1977, 34 percent of government clerical

(25) workers were represented by a labor organization,

compared with 46 percent of government professionals,

44 percent of government blue-collar workers, and

41 percent of government service workers, Since then,

however, the biggest increases in public-sector unioniza-

(30) tion have been among clerical workers. Between 1977

and 1980, the number of unionized government workers

in blue-collar and service occupations increased only

about 1.5 percent, while in the white-collar occupations

the increase was 20 percent and among clerical workers

(35) in particular, the increase was 22 percent.

What accounts for this upsurge in unionization

among clerical workers? First, more women have entered

the work force in the past few years, and more of them

plan to remain working until retirement age. Conse-

(40) quently, they are probably more concerned than their

predecessors were about job security and economic bene-

fits. Also, the women’s movement has succeeded in legit-

imizing the economic and political activism of women on

their own behalf, thereby producing a more positive atti-

(45) tude toward unions. The absence of any comparable

increase in unionization among private-sector clerical

workers, however, identifies the primary catalyst-the

structural change in the multioccupational public-sector

unions themselves. Over the past twenty years, the occu-

(50) pational distribution in these unions has been steadily

shifting from predominantly blue-collar to predomi-

nantly white-collar. Because there are far more women

in white-collar jobs, an increase in the proportion of

female members has accompanied the occupational shift

(55) and has altered union policy-making in favor of orga-

nizing women and addressing women’s issues.

1. According to the passage, the public-sector workers who

were most likely to belong to unions in 1977 were

(A) professionals

(B) managers

(C) clerical workers

(D) service workers

(E) blue-collar workers

2. The author cites union efforts to achieve a fully

unionized work force (line 13-19) in order to account

for why

(A) politicians might try to oppose public-sector union


(B) public-sector unions have recently focused on

organizing women

(C) early organizing efforts often focused on areas

where there were large numbers of workers

(D) union efforts with regard to public-sector clerical

workers increased dramatically after 1975

(E) unions sometimes tried to organize workers

regardless of the workers’ initial interest in


3. The author’s claim that, since the mid-1970’s, a new

strategy has emerged in the unionization of public-

sector clerical workers (line 23 ) would be

strengthened if the author

(A) described more fully the attitudes of clerical workers

toward labor unions

(B) compared the organizing strategies employed by

private-sector unions with those of public-sector


(C) explained why politicians and administrators

sometimes oppose unionization of clerical workers

(D) indicated that the number of unionized public-sector

clerical workers was increasing even before the mid-


(E) showed that the factors that favored unionization

drives among these workers prior to 1975 have

decreased in importance

4. According to the passage, in the period prior to 1975,

each of the following considerations helped determine

whether a union would attempt to organize a certain

group of clerical workers EXCEPT

(A) the number of clerical workers in that group
(B) the number of women among the clerical workers

in that group

(C) whether the clerical workers in that area were

concentrated in one workplace or scattered over

several workplaces
(D) the degree to which the clerical workers in that

group were interested in unionization

(E) whether all the other workers in the same juris-

diction as that group of clerical workers were


5. The author states that which of the following is a

consequence of the women’s movement of recent


(A) An increase in the number of women entering the

work force

(B) A structural change in multioccupational public-

sector unions

(C) A more positive attitude on the part of women

toward unions
(D) An increase in the proportion of clerical workers

that are women

(E) An increase in the number of women in

administrative positions

6. The main concern of the passage is to

(A) advocate particular strategies for future efforts to

organize certain workers into labor unions

(B) explain differences in the unionized proportions of

various groups of public-sector workers

(C) evaluate the effectiveness of certain kinds of labor

unions that represent public-sector workers

(D) analyzed and explain an increase in unionization

among a certain category of workers

(E) describe and distinguish strategies appropriate to

organizing different categories of workers

7. The author implies that if the increase in the number of

women in the work force and the impact of the women’s

movement were the main causes of the rise in

unionization of public-sector clerical workers, then

(A) more women would hold administrative positions in


(B) more women who hold political offices would have

positive attitudes toward labor unions

(C) there would be an equivalent rise in unionization of

private-sector clerical workers

(D) unions would have shown more interest than they

have in organizing women

(E) the increase in the number of unionized public-

sector clerical workers would have been greater than

it has been

8. The author suggests that it would be disadvantageous to

a union if

(A) many workers in the locality were not unionized

(B) the union contributed to political campaigns

(C) the union included only public-sector workers

(D) the union included workers from several


(E) the union included members from only a few


9. The author implies that, in comparison with working

women today, women working in the years prior to the

mid-1970’s showed a greater tendency to

(A) prefer smaller workplaces

(B) express a positive attitude toward labor unions

(C) maximize job security and economic benefits

(D) side with administrators in labor disputes

(E) quit working prior of retirement age

Passage 18

Milankovitch proposed in the early twentieth century

that the ice ages were caused by variations in the Earth’s

orbit around the Sun. For sometime this theory was

considered untestable, largely because there was no suffi-

(5) ciently precise chronology of the ice ages with which

the orbital variations could be matched.

To establish such a chronology it is necessary to

determine the relative amounts of land ice that existed

at various times in the Earth’s past. A recent discovery

(10) makes such a determination possible: relative land-ice

volume for a given period can be deduced from the ratio

of two oxygen isotopes, 16 and 18, found in ocean sedi-

ments. Almost all the oxygen in water is oxygen 16, but

a few molecules out of every thousand incorporate the

(15) heavier isotope 18. When an ice age begins, the conti-

nental ice sheets grow, steadily reducing the amount of

water evaporated from the ocean that will eventually

return to it. Because heavier isotopes tend to be left

behid when water evaporates from the ocean surfaces,

(20) the remaining ocean water becomes progressively

enriched in oxygen 18. The degree of enrichment can

be determined by analyzing ocean sediments of the

period, because these sediments are composed of calcium

carbonate shells of marine organisms, shells that were

(25) constructed with oxygen atoms drawn from the sur-

rounding ocean. The higher the ratio of oxygen 18 to oxygen 16 in a sedimentary specimen, the more land ice

there was when the sediment was laid down.

As an indicator of shifts in the Earth’s climate, the

(30) isotope record has two advantages. First, it is a global

record: there is remarkably little variation in isotope

ratios in sedimentary specimens taken from different

continental locations. Second, it is a more continuous

record than that taken from rocks on land. Because of

(35) these advantages, sedimentary evidence can be dated

with sufficient accuracy by radiometric methods to

establish a precise chronology of the ice ages. The dated

isotope record shows that the fluctuations in global ice volume over the past several hundred thousand years

(40) have a pattern: an ice age occurs roughly once every

100,000 years. These data have established a strong

connection between variations in the Earth’s orbit and

the periodicity of the ice ages.

However, it is important to note that other factors,

(45) such as volcanic particulates or variations in the amount

of sunlight received by the Earth, could potentially have

affected the climate. The advantage of the Milankovitch

theory is that it is testable: changes in the Earth’s orbit

can be calculated and dated by applying Newton’s laws

(50) of gravity to progressively earlier configurations of the

bodies in the solar system. Yet the lack of information

about other possible factors affecting global climate does

not make them unimportant.

1. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in

(A) suggesting an alternative to an outdated research


(B) introducing a new research method that calls an

accepted theory into question

(C) emphasizing the instability of data gathered from

the application of a new scientific method

(D) presenting a theory and describing a new method

to test that theory

(E) initiating a debate about a widely accepted theory

2. The author of the passage would be most likely to

agree with which of the following statements about

the Milankovitch theory?

(A) It is the only possible explanation for the ice ages.

(B) It is too limited to provide a plausible explanation

for the ice ages, despite recent research findings.

(C) It cannot be tested and confirmed until further

research on volcanic activity is done.

(D) It is one plausible explanation, though not the

only one, for the ice ages.

(E) It is not a plausible explanation for the ice ages,

although it has opened up promising possibilities

for future research.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the isotope

record taken from ocean sediments would be less useful

to researchers if which of the following were true?

(A) It indicated that lighter isotopes of oxygen

predominated at certain times.

(B) It had far more gaps in its sequence than the record

taken from rocks on land.

(C) It indicated that climate shifts did not occur every

100,000 years.

(D) It indicated that the ratios of oxygen 16 and oxygen

18 in ocean water were not consistent with those

found in fresh water.

(E) It stretched back for only a million years.

4. According to the passage, which of the following is true

of the ratios of oxygen isotopes in ocean sediments?

(A) They indicate that sediments found during an ice

age contain more calcium carbonate than sediments

formed at other times.

(B) They are less reliable than the evidence from rocks

on land in determining the volume of land ice.

(C) They can be used to deduce the relative volume of

land ice that was present when the sediment was

laid down.

(D) They are more unpredictable during an ice age

than in other climatic conditions.

(E) They can be used to determine atmospheric

conditions at various times in the past.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that precipitation

formed from evaporated ocean water has

(A) the same isotopic ratio as ocean water

(B) less oxygen 18 than does ocean water

(C) less oxygen 18 than has the ice contained in

continental ice sheets

(D) a different isotopic composition than has

precipitation formed from water on land

(E) more oxygen 16 than has precipitation formed from

fresh water

6. According to the passage, which of the following is (are)

true of the ice ages?

Ⅰ. The last ice age occurred about 25,000 years ago.

Ⅱ. Ice ages have lasted about 10,000 years for at least

the last several hundred thousand years.

Ⅲ. Ice ages have occurred about every 100,000 years

for at least the last several hundred thousand years.

(A) Ⅰ only

(B) Ⅱ only

(C) Ⅲ only

(D) Ⅰand only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ

7. It can be inferred from the passage that calcium

carbonate shells

(A) are not as susceptible to deterioration as rocks

(B) are less common in sediments formed during an ice


(C) are found only in areas that were once covered by

land ice

(D) contain radioactive material that can be used to

determine a sediment’s isotopic composition

(E) reflect the isotopic composition of the water at the

time the shells were formed

8. The purpose of the last paragraph of the passage is to

(A) offer a note of caution

(B) introduce new evidence

(C) present two recent discoveries

(D) summarize material in the preceding paragraphs

(E) offer two explanations for a phenomenon

9. According to the passage, one advantage of studying the

isotope record of ocean sediments is that it

(A) corresponds with the record of ice volume taken

from rocks on land

(B) shows little variation in isotope ratios when samples

are taken from different continental locations

(C) corresponds with predictions already made by

climatologists and experts in other fields

(D) confirms the record of ice volume initially

established by analyzing variations in volcanic


(E) provides data that can be used to substantiate

records concerning variations in the amount

of sunlight received by the Earth

Passage 19

In contrast to traditional analyses of minority busi-

ness, the sociological analysis contends that minority

business ownership is a group-level phenomenon, in that

it is largely dependent upon social-group resources for

(5) its development. Specifically, this analysis indicates that

support networks play a critical role in starting and

maintaining minority business enterprises by providing

owners with a range of assistance, from the informal

encouragement of family members and friends to

(10) dependable sources of labor and clientele from the

owner’s ethnic group. Such self-help networks, which

encourage and support ethnic minority entrepreneurs,

consist of “primary” institutions, those closest to the

individual in shaping his or her behavior and beliefs.

(15) They are characterized by the face-to-face association

and cooperation of persons united by ties of mutual

concern. They form an intermediate social level between

the individual and larger “secondary ” institutions based

on impersonal relationships. Primary institutions

(20) comprising the support network include kinship, peer,

and neighborhood or community subgroups.

A major function of self-help networks is financial

support. Most scholars agree that minority business

owners have depended primarily on family funds and

(25) ethnic community resources for investment capital .

Personal savings have been accumulated, often through

frugal living habits that require sacrifices by the entire

family and are thus a product of long-term family finan-

cial behavior. Additional loans and gifts from relatives.

(30) forthcoming because of group obligation rather than

narrow investment calculation, have supplemented

personal savings. Individual entrepreneurs do not neces-

sarily rely on their kin because they cannot obtain finan-

cial backing from commercial resources. They may actu-

(35) ally avoid banks because they assume that commercial

institutions either cannot comprehend the special needs

of minority enterprise or charge unreasonably high

interest rates.

Within the larger ethnic community, rotating credit

(40) associations have been used to raise capital. These asso-

ciations are informal clubs of friends and other trusted

members of the ethnic group who make regular contri-

butions to a fund that is given to each contributor in

rotation. One author estimates that 40 percent of New

(45)York Chinatown firms established during 1900-1950

utilized such associations as their initial source of

capital. However, recent immigrants and third or fourth

generations of older groups now employ rotating credit

associations only occasionally to raise investment funds.

(50) Some groups, like Black Americans, found other means

of financial support for their entrepreneurial efforts.The

first Black-operated banks were created in the late nine-

teenth century as depositories for dues collected from

fraternal or lodge groups, which themselves had sprung

(55) from Black churches. Black banks made limited invest-

ments in other Black enterprises. Irish immigrants in

American cities organized many building and loan asso-

ciations to provide capital for home construction and

purchase. They. in turn, provided work for many Irish

(60) home-building contractor firms. Other ethnic and

minority groups followed similar practices in founding

ethnic-directed financial institutions.

1. Based on the information in the passage. it would be

LEAST likely for which of the following persons to be

part of a self-help network?

(A) The entrepreneur’s childhood friend

(B) The entrepreneur’s aunt

(C) The entrepreneur’s religious leader

(D) The entrepreneur’s neighbor

(E) The entrepreneur’s banker

2. Which of the following illustrates the working of a self-

help support network, as such networks are described

in the passage?

(A) A public high school offers courses in book-keeping

and accounting as part of its open-enrollment adult

education program.

(B) The local government in a small city sets up a

program that helps teen-agers find summer jobs.

(C) A major commercial bank offers low-interest loans

to experienced individuals who hope to establish

their own businesses.

(D) A neighborhood-based fraternal organization

develops a program of on-the-job training for its

members and their friends.

(E) A community college offers country residents

training programs that can lead to certification in a

variety of technical trades.

3. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage

about rotating credit associations?

(A) They were developed exclusively by Chinese


(B) They accounted for a significant portion of the

investment capital used by Chinese immigrants in

New York in the early twentieth century.

(C) Third-generation members of an immigrant group

who started businesses in the 1920’s would have

been unlikely to rely on them.

(D) They were frequently joint endeavors by members

of two or three different ethnic groups.

(E) Recent immigrants still frequently turn to rotating

credit associations instead of banks for investment


4. The passage best supports which of the following


(A) A minority entrepreneur who had no assistance from

family members would not be able to start a


(B) Self-help networks have been effective in helping

entrepreneurs primarily in the last 50 years.

(C) Minority groups have developed a range of

alternatives to standard financing of business


(D) The financial institutions founded by various ethnic

groups owe their success to their unique formal


(E) Successful minority-owned businesses succeed

primarily because of the personal strengths of their


5. Which of the following best describes the organization

of the second paragraph?

(A) An argument is delineated, followed by a


(B) An assertion is made and several examples are

provided to illustrate it.

(C) A situation is described and its historical

background is then outlined.

(D) An example of a phenomenon is given and is then

used as a basis for general conclusions.

(E) A group of parallel incidents is described and the

distinctions among the incidents are then clarified.

6. According to the passage, once a minority-owned

business is established, self-help networks contribute

which of the following to that business?

(A) Information regarding possible expansion of the

business into nearby communities

(B) Encouragement of a business climate that is nearly

free of direct competition

(C) Opportunities for the business owner to reinvest

profits in other minority-owned businesses

(D) Contact with people who are likely to be customers

of the new business

(E) Contact with minority entrepreneurs who are

members of other ethnic groups

7. It can be inferred from the passage that traditional

analyses of minority business would be LEAST likely

to do which of the following?

(A) Examine businesses primarily in their social


(B) Focus on current, rather than historical, examples

of business enterprises

(C) Stress common experiences of individual

entrepreneurs in starting businesses

(D) Focus on the maintenance of businesses, rather

than means of starting them

(E) Focus on the role of individual entrepreneurs in

starting a business

8. Which of the following can be inferred from the

passage about the Irish building and loan

associations mentioned in the last paragraph?

(A) They were started by third-or fourth-generation


(B) They originated as offshoots of church-related


(C) They frequently helped Irish entrepreneurs to

finance business not connected with construction.

(D) They contributed to the employment of many Irish

construction workers.

(E) They provided assistance for construction businesses

owned by members of other ethnic groups.

Passage 20

Species interdependence in nature confers many

benefits on the species involved, but it can also become a

point of weakness when one species involved in the rela-

tionship is affected by a catastrophe. Thus, flowering

(5) plant species dependent on insect pollination, as opposed

to self-pollination or wind pollination, could be endan-

gered when the population of insect-pollinators is depleted

by the use of pesticides.

In the forests of New Brunswick, for example,

(10) various pesticides have been sprayed in the past 25 years

in efforts to control the spruce budworm, an economi-

cally significant pest. Scientists have now investigated

the effects of the spraying of Matacil, one of the anti-

budworm agents that is least toxic to insect-pollinators.

(15) They studied Matacil’s effects on insect mortality in a

wide variety of wild insect species and on plant fecun-

dity, expressed as the percentage of the total flowers on

an individual plant that actually developed fruit and

bore seeds. They found that the most pronounced

(20) mortality after the spraying of Matacil occurred among

the smaller bees and one family of flies, insects that were

all important pollinators of numerous species of plants

growing beneath the tree canopy of forests. The fecun-

dity of plants in one common indigenous species, the

(25) red-osier dogwood, was significantly reduced in the

sprayed areas as compared to that of plants in control

plots where Matacil was not sprayed. This species is

highly dependent on the insect-pollinators most vulner-

able to Matacil. The creeping dogwood, a species similar

(30) to the red-osier dogwood, but which is pollinated by

large bees, such as bumblebees, showed no significant

decline in fecundity. Since large bees are not affected by

the spraying of Matacil. these results and weight to the

argument that spraying where the pollinators are sensi-

(35) tive to the pesticide used decreases plant fecundity.

The question of whether the decrease in plant fecun-

dity caused by the spraying of pesticides actually causes

a decline in the overall population of flowering plant

species still remains unanswered. Plant species dependent

(40) solely on seeds for survival or dispersal are obviously

more vulnerable to any decrease in plant fecundity that

occurs, whatever its cause. If, on the other hand, vegeta-

tive growth and dispersal (by means of shoots or runners)

are available as alternative reproductive strategies for a

(45) species, then decreases in plant fecundity may be of little

consequence. The fecundity effects described here are

likely to have the most profound impact on plant species

with all four of the following characteristics: a short life

span, a narrow geographic range, an incapacity for vege-

(50) tative propagation, and a dependence on a small number

of insect-pollinator species. Perhaps we should give special

attention to the conservation of such plant species since

they lack key factors in their defenses against the envi-

ronmental disruption caused by pesticide use.

1. Which of the following best summarizes the main point

of the passage?

(A) Species interdependence is a point of weakness for

some plants, but is generally beneficial to insects

involved in pollination.

(B) Efforts to control the spruce budworm have had

deleterious effects on the red-osier dogwood.

(C) The used of pesticides may be endangering certain

plant species dependent on insects for pollination.

(D) The spraying of pesticides can reduce the fecundity

of a plant species, but probably does not affect its

overall population stability.

(E) Plant species lacking key factors in their defenses

against human environmental disruption will

probably become extinct.

2. According to the author, a flowering plant species whose

fecundity has declined due to pesticide spraying may

not experience an overall population decline if the plant

species can do which of the following?

(A) Reproduce itself by means of shoots and runners.

(B) Survive to the end of the growing season.

(C) Survive in harsh climates.

(D) Respond to the fecundity decline by producing more


(E) Attract large insects as pollinators

3. The passage suggests that the lack of an observed

decline in the fecundity of the creeping dogwood

strengthens the researchers conclusions regarding

pesticide use because the

(A) creeping dogwood its a species that does not

resemble other forest plants

(B) creeping dogwood is a species pollinated by a

broader range of insect species than are most

dogwood species

(C) creeping dogwood grows primarily in regions that

were not sprayed with pesticide, and so served as a

control for the experiment

(D) creeping dogwood is similar to the red-osier

dogwood, but its insect pollinators are known to be

insensitive to the pesticide used in the study

(E) geographical range of the creeping dogwood is

similar to that of the red-osier dogwood, but the

latter species relies less on seeds for reproduction

4. The passage suggests that which of the following is true

of the forest regions in New Brunswick sprayed with

most anti-budworm pesticides other than Matacil?

(A) The fecundity of some flowering plants in those

regions may have decreased to an even greater

degree than in the regions where Matacil is used.

(B) Insect mortality in those regions occurs mostly

among the larger species of insects, such as


(C) The number of seeds produced by common plant

species in those regions is probably comparable to

the number produced where Matacil is sprayed.

(D) Many more plant species have become extinct in

those regions than in the regions where Matacil is


(E) The spruce budworm is under better control in those

regions than in the regions where Matacil is sprayed.

5. It can be inferred that which of the following is true of

plant fecundity as it is defined in the passage?

(A) A plant’s fecundity decreases as the percentage of

unpollinated flowers on the plant increases

(B) A plant’s fecundity decreases as the number of

flowers produced by the plant decreases.

(C) A plant’s fecundity increases as the number of

flowers produced by the plant increases.

(D) A plant’s fecundity is usually low if the plant relies

on a small number of insect species for pollination.

(E) A plant’s fecundity is high if the plant can reproduce

quickly by means of vegetative growth as well as by

the production of seeds.

6. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the

following plant species would be LEAST likely to

experience a decrease in fecundity as a result of the

spraying of a pesticide not directly toxic to plants?

(A) A flowering tree pollinated by only a few insect


(B) A kind of insect-pollinated vine producing few


(C) A wind-pollinated flowering tree that is short-lived

(D) A flowering shrub pollinated by a large number of

insect species

(E) A type of wildflower typically pollinated by larger


7. Which of the following assumptions most probably

underlies the author’s tentative recommendation in

lines 51-54?

(A) Human activities that result in environmental

disruption should be abandoned.

(B) The use of pesticides is likely to continue into the


(C) It is economically beneficial to preserve endan-

gered plant species.

(D) Preventing the endangerment of a species is less

costly than trying to save an already endangered


(E) Conservation efforts aimed at preserving a few well-

chosen species are more cost-effective than are

broader-based efforts to improve the environment.

Passage 21

Bernard Bailyn has recently reinterpreted the early

history of the United States by applying new social

research findings on the experiences of European

migrants. In his reinterpretation, migration becomes the

(5) organizing principle for rewriting the history of prein-

dustrial North America. His approach rests on four

separate propositions.

The first of these asserts that residents of early

modern England moved regularly about their coun-

(10) tryside; migrating to the New World was simply a

“natural spillover.” Although at first the colonies held

little positive attraction for the English—they would

rather have stayed home—by the eighteenth century

people increasingly migrated to America because they

(15) regarded it as the land of opportunity. Secondly, Bailyn

holds that, contrary to the notion that used to flourish in

America history textbooks, there was never a typical

New World community. For example, the economic and demographic character of early New England towns

(20) varied considerably.

Bailyn’s third proposition suggests two general

patterns prevailing among the many thousands of

migrants: one group came as indentured servants,

another came to acquire land. Surprisingly, Bailyn

(25) suggests that those who recruited indentured servants

were the driving forces of transatlantic migration. These

colonial entrepreneurs helped determine the social char-

acter of people who came to preindustrial North America.

At first, thousands of unskilled laborers were recruited;

(30) by the 1730’s, however, American employers demanded

skilled artisans.

Finally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a half-

civilized hinterland of the European culture system. He

is undoubtedly correct to insist that the colonies were

(35) part of an Anglo-American empire. But to divide the

empire into English core and colonial periphery, as

Bailyn does, devalues the achievements of colonial

culture. It is true, as Bailyn claims, that high culture in

the colonies never matched that in England. But what

(40) of seventeenth-century New England, where the settlers

created effective laws, built a distinguished university,

and published books? Bailyn might respond that New

England was exceptional. However, the ideas and insti-

tutions developed by New England Puritans had power-

(45) ful effects on North American culture.

Although Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to

some thousands of indentured servants who migrated

just prior to the revolution, he fails to link their experi-

ence with the political development of the United States.

(50) Evidence presented in his work suggests how we might

make such a connection. These indentured servants were

treated as slaves for the period during which they had

sold their time to American employers. It is not surprising

that as soon as they served their time they passed up

(55) good wages in the cities and headed west to ensure their

personal independence by acquiring land. Thus, it is in

the west that a peculiarly American political culture

began, among colonists who were suspicious of

authority and intensely antiaristocratic.

1. Which of the following statements about migrants to

colonial North America is supported by information in

the passage?

(A) A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North

America came as indentured servants than as free

agents interested in acquiring land.

(B) Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured

servants were more successful at making a

livelihood than were farmers and artisans.

(C) Migrants to colonial North America were more

successful at acquiring their own land during the

eighteenth century than during the seven-tenth


(D) By the 1730’s, migrants already skilled in a

trade were in more demand by American

employers than were unskilled laborers.

(E) A significant percentage of migrants who came to

the colonies to acquire land were forced to work as

field hands for prosperous American farmers.

2. The author of the passage states that Bailyn failed to

(A) give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political

interdependence of the colonies and England

(B) describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic

backgrounds preserved their culture in the united


(C) take advantage of social research on the experi-

ences of colonists who migrated to colonial North

America specifically to acquire land

(D) relate the experience of the migrants to the political

values that eventually shaped the character of the

United States

(E) investigate the lives of Europeans before they came

to colonial North America to determine more

adequately their motivations for migrating

3. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s

evaluation of Bailyn’s fourth proposition?

(A) It is totally implausible.

(B) It is partially correct.

(C) It is highly admirable.

(D) It is controversial though persuasive.

(E) It is intriguing though unsubstantiated.

4. According to the passage, Bailyn and the author agree

on which of the following statements about the culture

of colonial New England?

(A) High culture in New England never equaled the high

culture of England.

(B) The cultural achievements of colonial New

England have generally been unrecognized by


(C) The colonists imitated the high culture of England,

and did not develop a culture that was uniquely their


(D) The southern colonies were greatly influenced by

the high culture of New England.

(E) New England communities were able to create laws

and build a university, but unable to create anything

innovative in the arts.

5. According to the passage, which of the following is true

of English migrants to the colonies during the

eighteenth century?

(A) Most of them were farmers rather than trades

people or artisans.

(B) Most of them came because they were unable

to find work in England.

(C) They differed from other English people in that

they were willing to travel.

(D) They expected that the colonies would offer

them increased opportunity.

(E) They were generally not as educated as the

people who remained in England.

6. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) comparing several current interpretations of early

American history

(B) suggesting that new social research on migration

should lead to revisions in current interpretations of

early American history

(C) providing the theoretical framework that is used by

most historians in understanding early American


(D) refuting an argument about early American history

that has been proposed by social historians

(E) discussing a reinterpretation of early American

history that is based on new social research on


7. It can be inferred from the passage that American

history textbooks used to assert that

(A) many migrants to colonial North America were not

successful financially

(B) more migrants came to America out of religious or

political conviction that came in the hope of

acquiring land

(C) New England communities were much alike in

terms of their economics and demographics

(D) many migrants to colonial North America failed to

maintain ties with their European relations

(E) the level of literacy in New England communities

was very high

8. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree

with which of the following statements about Bailyn’s


(A) Bailyn underestimates the effects of Puritan thought

on North American culture

(B) Bailyn overemphasizes the economic dependence of

the colonies on Great Britain.

(C) Bailyn’s description of the colonies as part of an

Anglo-American empire is misleading and incorrect.

(D) Bailyn failed to test his propositions on a specific

group of migrants to colonial North America.

(E) Bailyn overemphasizes the experiences of migrants

to the New England colonies, and neglects the

southern and the western parts of the New World.

Passage 22

Many United States companies have, unfortunately,

made the search for legal protection from import

competition into a major line of work. Since 1980 the

United States International Trade Commission (ITC)

(5) has received about 280 complaints alleging damage

from imports that benefit from subsidies by foreign

governments. Another 340 charge that foreign compa-

nies “dumped” their products in the United States at

“less than fair value.” Even when no unfair practices

(10) are alleged, the simple claim that an industry has been

injured by imports is sufficient grounds to seek relief.

Contrary to the general impression, this quest for

import relief has hurt more companies than it has

helped. As corporations begin to function globally, they

(15) develop an intricate web of marketing, production, and

research relationships, The complexity of these relation-

ships makes it unlikely that a system of import relief

laws will meet the strategic needs of all the units under

the same parent company.

(20) Internationalization increases the danger that foreign

companies will use import relief laws against the very

companies the laws were designed to protect. Suppose a

United States-owned company establishes an overseas

plant to manufacture a product while its competitor

(25) makes the same product in the United States. If the

competitor can prove injury from the imports—and

that the United States company received a subsidy from

a foreign government to build its plant abroad—the

United States company’s products will be uncompeti-

(30) tive in the United States, since they would be subject to


Perhaps the most brazen case occurred when the ITC

investigated allegations that Canadian companies were

injuring the United States salt industry by dumping

(35) rock salt, used to de-ice roads. The bizarre aspect of the

complaint was that a foreign conglomerate with United

States operations was crying for help against a United

States company with foreign operations. The “United

States” company claiming injury was a subsidiary of a

(40) Dutch conglomerate, while the “Canadian” companies

included a subsidiary of a Chicago firm that was the

second-largest domestic producer of rock salt.

1. The passage is chiefly concerned with

(A) arguing against the increased internationalization of

United States corporations

(B) warning that the application of laws affecting trade

frequently has unintended consequences

(C) demonstrating that foreign-based firms receive more

subsidies from their governments than United States

firms receive from the United States government

(D) advocating the use of trade restrictions for

“dumped” products but not for other imports

(E) recommending a uniform method for handling

claims of unfair trade practices

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the minimal

basis for a complaint to the International Trade

Commission is which of the following?

(A) A foreign competitor has received a subsidy from a

foreign government.

(B) A foreign competitor has substantially increased the

volume of products shipped to the United States.

(C) A foreign competitor is selling products in the

United States at less than fair market value.

(D) The company requesting import relief has been

injured by the sale of imports in the United States.

(E) The company requesting import relief has been

barred from exporting products to the country of its

foreign competitor.

3. The last paragraph performs which of the following

functions in the passage?

(A) It summarizes the discussion thus far and suggests

additional areas of research.

(B) It presents a recommendation based on the evidence

presented earlier.

(C) It discusses an exceptional case in which the results

expected by the author of the passage were not


(D) It introduces an additional area of concern not

mentioned earlier.

(E) It cites a specific case that illustrates a problem

presented more generally in the previous paragraph.

4. The passage warns of which of the following dangers?

(A) Companies in the United States may receive no

protection from imports unless they actively seek

protection from import competition.

(B) Companies that seek legal protection from import

competition may incur legal costs that far exceed

any possible gain.

(C) Companies that are United States-owned but operate

internationally may not be eligible for protection

from import competition under the laws of the

countries in which their plants operate.

(D) Companies that are not United States-owned may

seek legal protection from import competition under

United States import relief laws.

(E) Companies in the United States that import raw

materials may have to pay duties on those materials.

5. The passage suggests that which of the following is

most likely to be true of United States trade laws?

(A) They will eliminate the practice of “dumping”

products in the United States.

(B) They will enable manufacturers in the United

States to compete more profitably outside the

United States.

(C) They will affect United States trade with Canada

more negatively than trade with other nations.

(D) Those that help one unit within a parent company

will not necessarily help other units in the company.

(E) Those that are applied to international companies

will accomplish their intended result.

6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author

believes which of the following about the complaint

mentioned in the last paragraph?

(A) The ITC acted unfairly toward the complainant

in its investigation.

(B) The complaint violated the intent of import relief


(C) The response of the ITC to the complaint provided

suitable relief from unfair trade practices to the


(D) The ITC did not have access to appropriate

information concerning the case.

(E) Each of the companies involved in the complaint

acted in its own best interest.

7. According to the passage, companies have the general

impression that International Trade Commission import

relief practices have

(A) caused unpredictable fluctuations in volumes of

imports and exports

(B) achieved their desired effect only under unusual


(C) actually helped companies that have requested

import relief

(D) been opposed by the business community

(E) had less impact on international companies than the

business community expected

8. According to the passage, the International Trade

Commission is involved in which of the following?

(A) Investigating allegations of unfair import


(B) Granting subsidies to companies in the United States

that have been injured by import competition

(C) Recommending legislation to ensure fair

(D) Identifying international corporations that wish to

build plants in the United States

(E) Assisting corporations in the United States that wish

to compete globally

Passage 23

At the end of the nineteenth century, a rising interest

in Native American customs and an increasing desire to

understand Native American culture prompted ethnolo-

gists to begin recording the life stories of Native Amer-

(5) ican. Ethnologists had a distinct reason for wanting to

hear the stories: they were after linguistic or anthropo-

logical data that would supplement their own field

observations, and they believed that the personal

stories, even of a single individual, could increase their

(10) understanding of the cultures that they had been

observing from without. In addition many ethnologists

at the turn of the century believed that Native Amer-

ican manners and customs were rapidly disappearing,

and that it was important to preserve for posterity as

(15) much information as could be adequately recorded

before the cultures disappeared forever.

There were, however, arguments against this method

as a way of acquiring accurate and complete informa-

tion. Franz Boas, for example, described autobiogra-

(20) phies as being “of limited value, and useful chiefly for

the study of the perversion of truth by memory,” while

Paul Radin contended that investigators rarely spent

enough time with the tribes they were observing, and

inevitably derived results too tinged by the investi-

(25) gator’s own emotional tone to be reliable.

Even more importantly, as these life stories moved

from the traditional oral mode to recorded written

form, much was inevitably lost. Editors often decided

what elements were significant to the field research on a

(30) given tribe. Native Americans recognized that the

essence of their lives could not be communicated in

English and that events that they thought significant

were often deemed unimportant by their interviewers.

Indeed, the very act of telling their stories could force

(35) Native American narrators to distort their cultures, as

taboos had to be broken to speak the names of dead

relatives crucial to their family stories.

Despite all of this, autobiography remains a useful

tool for ethnological research: such personal reminis-

(40) cences and impressions, incomplete as they may be, are

likely to throw more light on the working of the mind

and emotions than any amount of speculation from an

ethnologist or ethnological theorist from another


1. Which of the following best describes the organization

of the passage?

(A) The historical backgrounds of two currently used

research methods are chronicled.

(B) The validity of the data collected by using two

different research methods is compared.

(C) The usefulness of a research method is questioned

and then a new method is proposed.

(D) The use of a research method is described and the

limitations of the results obtained are discussed.

(E) A research method is evaluated and the changes

necessary for its adaptation to other subject areas are


2. Which of the following is most similar to the actions of

nineteenth-century ethnologists in their editing of the

life stories of Native Americans?

(A) A witness in a jury trial invokes the Fifth

Amendment in order to avoid relating personally

incriminating evidence.

(B) A stockbroker refuses to divulge the source of her

information on the possible future increase in a

stock’s value.

(C) A sports announcer describes the action in a team

sport with which he is unfamiliar.

(D) A chef purposely excludes the special ingredient

from the recipe of his prizewinning dessert.

(E) A politician fails to mention in a campaign speech

the similarities in the positions held by her opponent

for political office and by herself.

3. According to the passage, collecting life stories can be a

useful methodology because

(A) life stories provide deeper insights into a culture

than the hypothesizing of academics who are not

members of that culture

(B) life stories can be collected easily and they are not

subject to invalid interpretations

(C) ethnologists have a limited number of research

methods from which to choose

(D) life stories make it easy to distinguish between the

important and unimportant features of a culture

(E) the collection of life stories does not require a

culturally knowledgeable investigator

4. Information in the passage suggests that which of

the following may be a possible way to eliminate

bias in the editing of life stories?

(A) Basing all inferences made about the culture

on an ethnological theory

(B) Eliminating all of the emotion-laden information

reported by the informant

(C) Translating the informant’s words into the

researcher’s language

(D) Reducing the number of questions and carefully

specifying the content of the questions that the

investigator can ask the informant

(E) Reporting all of the information that the informant

provides regardless of the investigator’s personal

opinion about its intrinsic value

5. The primary purpose of the passage as a whole is to

(A) question an explanation

(B) correct a misconception

(C) critique a methodology

(D) discredit an idea

(E) clarify an ambiguity

6. It can be inferred from the passage that a characteristic

of the ethnological research on Native Americans

conducted during the nineteenth century was the use

of which of the following?

(A) Investigators familiar with the culture under study

(B) A language other than the informant’s for recording

life stories

(C) Life stories as the ethnologist’s primary source of


(D) Complete transcriptions of informants’ descriptions

of tribal beliefs

(E) Stringent guidelines for the preservation of cultural


7. The passage mentions which of the following as a factor

that can affect the accuracy of ethnologists’

transcriptions of life stories?

(A) The informants’ social standing within the culture

(B) The inclusiveness of the theory that provided the

basis for the research

(C) The length of time the researchers spent in the

culture under study

(D) The number of life stories collected by the


(E) The verifiability of the information provided by the

research informants

8. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would

be most likely to agree with which of the following

statements about the usefulness of life stories as a source

of ethnographic information?

(A) They can be a source of information about how

people in a culture view the world.

(B) They are most useful as a source of linguistic


(C) They require editing and interpretation before they

can be useful.

(D) They are most useful as a source of information

about ancestry.

(E) They provide incidental information rather than

significant insights into a way of life.

Passage 24

All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the

same complement of genes. How then can these cells

differentiate and form structures as different as roots,

stems, leaves, and fruits? The answer is that only a

(5) small subset of the genes in a particular kind of cell are

expressed, or turned on, at a given time. This is accom-

plished by a complex system of chemical messengers

that in plants include hormones and other regulatory

molecules. Five major hormones have been identified:

(10) auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberel-

lin. Studies of plants have now identified a new class of

regulatory molecules called oligosaccharins.

Unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant

hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific, that is,

(15) each has more than one effect on the growth and devel-

opment of plants. The five has so many simultaneous

effects that they are not very useful in artificially

controlling the growth of crops. Auxin, for instance,

stimulates the rate of cell elongation, causes shoots to

(20) grow up and roots to grow down, and inhibits the

growth of lateral shoots. Auxin also causes the plant to

develop a vascular system, to form lateral roots, and to

produce ethylene.

The pleiotropy of the five well-studied plant

(25) hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain

hormones in animal. For example, hormones from the

hypothalamus in the brain stimulate the anterior lobe

of the pituitary gland to synthesize and release many

different hormones, one of which stimulates the release

(30) of hormones from the adrenal cortex. These hormones

have specific effects on target organs all over the body.

One hormone stimulates the thyroid gland, for

example, another the ovarian follicle cells, and so forth.

In other words, there is a hierarchy of hormones.

(35) Such a hierarchy may also exist in plants. Oligosac-

charins are fragments of the cell wall released by

enzymes: different enzymes release different oligosac-

charins. There are indications that pleiotropic plant

hormones may actually function by activating the

(40) enzymes that release these other, more specific chemical

messengers from the cell wall.

1. According to the passage, the five well-known plant

hormones are not useful in controlling the growth of

crops because

(A) it is not known exactly what functions the hormones


(B) each hormone has various effects on plants

(C) none of the hormones can function without the


(D) each hormone has different effects on different kinds

of plants

(E) each hormone works on only a small subset of a

cell’s genes at any particular time

2. The passage suggests that the place of hypothalamic

hormones in the hormonal hierarchies of animals is

similar to the place of which of the following in plants?

(A) Plant cell walls

(B) The complement of genes in each plant cell

(C) A subset of a plant cell’s gene complement

(D) The five major hormones

(E) The oligosaccharins

3. The passage suggests that which of the following is a

function likely to be performed by an oligosaccharin?

(A) To stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of

a plant’s root system

(B) To stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce

other oligosaccharins

(C) To activate enzymes that release specific chemical

messengers from plant cell walls

(D) To duplicate the gene complement in a particular

plant cell

(E) To produce multiple effects on a particular

subsystem of plant cells

4. The author mentions specific effects that auxin has on

plant development in order to illustrate the

(A) point that some of the effects of plant hormones can

be harmful

(B) way in which hormones are produced by plants

(C) hierarchical nature of the functioning of plant


(D) differences among the best-known plant hormones

(E) concept of pleiotropy as it is exhibited by plant


5. According to the passage, which of the following best

describes a function performed by oligosaccharins?

(A) Regulating the daily functioning of a plant’s cells

(B) Interacting with one another to produce different


(C) Releasing specific chemical messengers from a

plant’s cell walls

(D) Producing the hormones that cause plant cells to

differentiate to perform different functions

(E) Influencing the development of a plant’s cells by

controlling the expression of the cells’ genes

6. The passage suggests that, unlike the pleiotropic

hormones, oligosaccharins could be used effectively


(A) trace the passage of chemicals through the walls of


(B) pinpoint functions of other plant hormones

(C) artificially control specific aspects of the

development of crops

(D) alter the complement of genes in the cells of plants

(E) alter the effects of the five major hormones on

plant development

7. The author discusses animal hormones primarily in

order to

(A) introduce the idea of a hierarchy of hormones

(B) explain the effects that auxin has on plant cells

(C) contrast the functioning of plant hormones and

animals hormones

(D) illustrate the way in which particular hormones

affect animals

(E) explain the distinction between hormones and

regulatory molecules

Passage 25

In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University in

Seoul, Korea, announced the opening of the first

women’s studies program in Asia. Few academic

programs have ever received such public attention. In

(5) broadcast debates, critics dismissed the program as a

betrayal of national identity, an imitation of Western

ideas, and a distraction from the real task of national

unification and economic development. Even supporters

underestimated the program ; they thought it would be

(10) merely another of the many Western ideas that had

already proved useful in Asian culture, akin to airlines,

electricity, and the assembly line. The founders of the

program, however, realized that neither view was

correct. They had some reservations about the appli-

(15) cability of Western feminist theories to the role of

women in Asia and felt that such theories should be

closely examined. Their approach has thus far yielded

important critiques of Western theory, informed by the

special experience of Asian women.

(20) For instance, like the Western feminist critique of the

Freudian model of the human psyche, the Korean critique finds Freudian theory culture-bound, but in

ways different from those cited by Western theorists.

The Korean theorists claim that Freudian theory

(25) assumes the universality of the Western nuclear, male-

headed family and focuses on the personality formation

of the individual, independent of society, An analysis

based on such assumptions could be valid for a highly

competitive, individualistic society. In the Freudian

(30) family drama, family members are assumed to be

engaged in a Darwinian struggle against each other—

father against son and sibling against sibling. Such a

concept of projects the competitive model of Western

society onto human personalities. But in the Asian

(35) concept of personality there is no ideal attached to indi

vidualism or to the independent self. The Western model

of personality development does not explain major char-

acteristics of the Korean personality, which is social and

group-centered. The “self” is a social being defined by

(40) and acting in a group, and the well-being of both men

and women is determined by the equilibrium of the

group, not by individual self-assertion. The ideal is one

of interdependency.

In such a context, what is recognized as “depen-

(45) dency” in Western psychiatric terms is not, in Korean

terms, an admission of weakness or failure. All this bears

directly on the Asian perception of men’s and women’s

psychology because men are also “ dependent”, In

Korean culture, men cry and otherwise easily show their

(50) emotions, something that might be considered a betrayal

of masculinity in Western culture. In the kinship-based

society of Korea, four generations may live in the same

house, which means that people can be sons and daugh-

ters all their lives, whereas in Western culture, the roles

of husband and son, wife and daughter, are often incom-


1. Which of the following best summarizes the content of

the passage?

(A) A critique of a particular women’s studies program

(B) A report of work in social theory done by a

particular women’s studies program

(C) An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses

of a particular women’s studies program

(D) An analysis of the philosophy underlying

women’s studies programs

(E) An abbreviated history of Korean women’s

studies programs

2. It can be inferred from the passage that Korean

scholars in the field of women’s studies undertook

an analysis of Freudian theory as a response to

which of the following?

(A) Attacks by critics of the Ewha women’s studies


(B) The superficiality of earlier critiques of Freudian


(C) The popularity of Freud in Korean psychiatric


(D) Their desire to encourage Korean scholars to

adopt the Freudian model

(E) Their assessment of the relevance and limitations of

Western feminist theory with respect to Korean


3. Which of the following conclusions about the

introduction of Western ideas to Korean society can be

supported by information contained in the passage?

(A) Except for technological innovations, few Western

ideas have been successfully transplanted into

Korean society.

(B) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society

is viewed by some Koreans as a challenge to

Korean identity.

(C) The development of the Korean economy depends

heavily on the development of new academic

programs modeled after Western programs.

(D) The extent to which Western ideas must be adapted

for acceptance by Korean society is minimal.

(E) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society

accelerated after 1977.

4. It can be inferred from the passage that the broadcast

media in Korea considered the establishment of the

Ewha women’s studies program

(A) praiseworthy

(B) insignificant

(C) newsworthy

(D) imitative

(E) incomprehensible

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the position

taken by some of the supporters of the Ewha women’s

studies program was problematic to the founders of the

program because those supporters

(A) assumed that the program would be based on the

uncritical adoption of Western theory

(B) failed to show concern for the issues of national

unification and economic development

(C) were unfamiliar with Western feminist theory

(D) were not themselves scholars in the field of

women’s studies

(E) accepted the universality of Freudian theory

6. Which of the following statements is most consistent

with the view of personality development held by the

Ewha women’s studies group?

(A) Personality development occurs in identifiable

stages, beginning with dependency in childhood

and ending with independence in adulthood.

(B) Any theory of personality development, in order

to be valid, must be universal.

(C) Personality development is influenced by the

characteristics of the society in which a person


(D) Personality development is hindered if a person

is not permitted to be independent.

(E) No theory of personality development can account

for the differences between Korean and Western


7. Which of the following statements about the Western

feminist critique of Freudian theory can be supported

by information contained in the passage?

(A) It recognizes the influence of Western culture on

Freudian theory.

(B) It was written after 1977.

(C) It acknowledges the universality of the nuclear,

male-headed family.

(D) It challenges Freud’s analysis of the role of

daughters in Western society.

(E) It fails to address the issue of competitiveness in

Western society.

8. According to the passage, critics of the Ewha women’s

studies program cited the program as a threat to which

of the following?

Ⅰ. National identity

Ⅱ. National unification

Ⅲ. Economic development

Ⅳ.Family integrity

(A) Ⅰ only

(B) Ⅰ and Ⅱ only

(C) Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ only

(D) Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ, and Ⅳ

Passage 26

In choosing a method for determining climatic condi-

tions that existed in the past, paleoclimatologists invoke

four principal criteria. First, the material—rocks, lakes,

vegetation, etc—on which the method relies must be

(5) widespread enough to provide plenty of information,

since analysis of material that is rarely encountered will

not permit correlation with other regions or with other

periods of geological history. Second, in the process of

formation, the material must have received an environ-

(10) mental signal that reflects a change in climate and that

can be deciphered by modern physical or chemical

means. Third, at least some of the material must have

retained the signal unaffected by subsequent changes in

the environment. Fourth, it must be possible to deter-

(15) mine the time at which the inferred climatic conditions

held. This last criterion is more easily met in dating

marine sediments, because dating of only a small

number of layers in a marine sequence allows the age of

other layers to be estimated fairly reliably by extrapola-

(20) tion and interpolation. By contrast, because sedimenta-

tion is much less continuous in continental regions, esti-

mating the age of a continental bed from the known

ages of beds above and below is more risky.

One very old method used in the investigation of past

(25) climatic conditions involves the measurement of water

levels in ancient lakes. In temperate regions, there are

enough lakes for correlations between them to give us a

reliable picture. In arid and semiarid regions, on the

other hand, the small number of lakes and the great

(30) distances between them reduce the possibilities for corre-

lation. Moreover, since lake levels are controlled by rates

of evaporation as well as by precipitation, the interpreta-

tion of such levels is ambiguous. For instance, the fact

that lake levels in the semiarid southwestern United

(35) States appear to have been higher during the last ice age

than they are now was at one time attributed to

increased precipitation. On the basis of snow-line eleva-

tions, however, it has been concluded that the climate

then was not necessarily wetter than it is now, but rather

(40) that both summers and winters were cooler, resulting in

reduced evaporation.

Another problematic method is to reconstruct former

climates on the basis of pollen profiles. The type of vege-

tation in a specific region is determined by identifying

(45) and counting the various pollen grains found there.

Although the relationship between vegetation and

climate is not as direct as the relationship between

climate and lake levels, the method often works well in

the temperate zones. In arid and semiarid regions in

(50) which there is not much vegetation, however, small

changes in one or a few plant types can change the

picture dramatically, making accurate correlations

between neighboring areas difficult to obtain.

1. Which of the following statements about the

difference between marine and continental

sedimentation is supported by information in the


(A) Data provided by dating marine sedimentation is

more consistent with researchers’ findings in

other disciplines than is data provided by dating

continental sedimentation.

(B) It is easier to estimate the age of a layer in a

sequence of continental sedimentation than it

is to estimate the age of a layer in a sequence

of marine sedimentation.

(C) Marine sedimentation is much less widespread

than continental sedimentation.

(D) Researchers are more often forced to rely on

extrapolation when dating a layer of marine

sedimentation than when dating a layer of

continental sedimentation.

(E) Marine sedimentation is much more continuous

than is continental sedimentation.

2. Which of the following statements best describes the

organization of the passage as a whole?

(A) The author describes a method for determining past

climatic conditions and then offers specific

examples of situations in which it has been used.

(B) The author discusses the method of dating marine

and continental sequences and then explains how

dating is more difficult with lake levels than with

pollen profiles.

(C) The author describes the common requirements of

methods for determining past climatic conditions

and then discusses examples of such methods.

(D) The author describes various ways of choosing a

material for determining past climatic conditions

and then discusses how two such methods have

yielded contradictory data.

(E) The author describes how methods for determining

past climatic conditions were first developed and

then describes two of the earliest known methods.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that

paleoclimatologists have concluded which of the

following on the basis of their study of snow-line

elevations in the southwestern United States?

(A) There is usually more precipitation during an ice age

because of increased amounts of evaporation.

(B) There was less precipitation during the last ice age

than there is today.

(C) Lake levels in the semiarid southwestern United

States were lower during the last ice age than they

are today.

(D) During the last ice age, cooler weather led to lower

lake levels than paleoclimatologists had previously


(E) The high lake levels during the last ice age may have

been a result of less evaporation rather than more


4. Which of the following would be the most likely topic

for a paragraph that logically continues the passage?

(A) The kinds of plants normally found in arid regions

(B) The effect of variation in lake levels on pollen


(C) The material best suited to preserving signals of

climatic changes

(D) Other criteria invoked by paleoclimatologists when

choosing a method to determine past climatic


(E) A third method for investigating past climatic


5. The author discusses lake levels in the southwestern

United States in order to

(A) illustrate the mechanics of the relationship between

lake level, evaporation, and precipitation

(B) provide an example of the uncertainty involved in

interpreting lake levels

(C) prove that there are not enough ancient lakes with

which to make accurate correlations

(D) explain the effects of increased rates of evaporation

on levels of precipitation

(E) suggest that snow-line elevations are invariably

more accurate than lake levels in determining rates

of precipitation at various points in the past

6. It can be inferred from the passage that an

environmental signal found in geological material

would not be useful to paleoclimatologists if it

(A) had to be interpreted by modern chemical means

(B) reflected a change in climate rather than a long-

term climatic condition

(C) was incorporated into a material as the material was


(D) also reflected subsequent environmental changes

(E) was contained in a continental rather than a marine


7. According to the passage, the material used to determine

past climatic conditions must be widespread for which

of the following reasons?

Ⅰ.Paleoclimatologists need to make comparisons

between periods of geological history.

Ⅱ. Paleoclimatologists need to compare materials that

have supported a wide variety of vegetation.

Ⅲ. Paleoclimatologists need to make comparisons with

data collected in other regions.

(A) Ⅰ only

(B) Ⅱ only

(C) Ⅰ and Ⅱ only

(D) Ⅰ and Ⅲ only

(E) Ⅱ and Ⅲ only

8. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage

about the study of past climates in arid and semiarid


(A) It is sometimes more difficult to determine past

climatic conditions in arid and semiarid regions than

in temperate regions.

(B) Although in the past more research has been done on

temperate regions, paleoclimatologists have

recently turned their attention to arid and semiarid


(C) Although more information about past climates can

be gathered in arid and semiarid than in temperate

regions, dating this information is more difficult.

(D) It is difficult to study the climatic history of arid and

semiarid regions because their climates have tended

to vary more than those of temperate regions.

(E) The study of past climates in arid and semiarid

regions has been neglected because temperate

regions support a greater variety of plant and animal


Passage 27

Since the late 1970’s, in the face of a severe loss of

market share in dozens of industries, manufacturers in

the United States have been trying to improve produc-

tivity—and therefore enhance their international

(5) competitiveness—through cost—cutting programs. (Cost-

cutting here is defined as raising labor output while

holding the amount of labor constant.) However, from

1978 through 1982, productivity—the value of goods

manufactured divided by the amount of labor input—

(10) did not improve; and while the results were better in the

business upturn of the three years following, they ran 25

percent lower than productivity improvements during

earlier, post-1945 upturns. At the same time, it became clear that the harder manufactures worked to imple-

(15) ment cost-cutting, the more they lost their competitive


With this paradox in mind, I recently visited 25

companies; it became clear to me that the cost-cutting

approach to increasing productivity is fundamentally

(20) flawed. Manufacturing regularly observes a “40, 40, 20”

rule. Roughly 40 percent of any manufacturing-based

competitive advantage derives from long-term changes

in manufacturing structure (decisions about the number,

size, location, and capacity of facilities) and in approaches

(25) to materials. Another 40 percent comes from major

changes in equipment and process technology. The final

20 percent rests on implementing conventional cost-

cutting. This rule does not imply that cost-cutting should

not be tried. The well-known tools of this approach—

(30) including simplifying jobs and retraining employees to

work smarter, not harder—do produce results. But the

tools quickly reach the limits of what they can


Another problem is that the cost-cutting approach

(35) hinders innovation and discourages creative people. As

Abernathy’s study of automobile manufacturers has

shown, an industry can easily become prisoner of its

own investments in cost-cutting techniques, reducing its

ability to develop new products. And managers under

(40) pressure to maximize cost-cutting will resist innovation

because they know that more fundamental changes in

processes or systems will wreak havoc with the results on

which they are measured. Production managers have

always seen their job as one of minimizing costs and

(45) maximizing output. This dimension of performance has

until recently sufficed as a basis of evaluation, but it has

created a penny-pinching, mechanistic culture in most

factories that has kept away creative managers.

Every company I know that has freed itself from the

(50) paradox has done so, in part, by developing and imple-

menting a manufacturing strategy. Such a strategy

focuses on the manufacturing structure and on equip-

ment and process technology. In one company a manu-

facturing strategy that allowed different areas of the

(55) factory to specialize in different markets replaced the

conventional cost-cutting approach; within three years

the company regained its competitive advantage.

Together with such strategies, successful companies are

also encouraging managers to focus on a wider set of

objectives besides cutting costs. There is hope for manufacturing, but it clearly rests on a different way of


1.The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) summarizing a thesis

(B) recommending a different approach

(C) comparing points of view

(D) making a series of predictions

(E) describing a number of paradoxes

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the manufacturrs

mentioned in line 2 expected that the measures they

implemented would

(A) encourage innovation

(B) keep labor output constant

(C) increase their competitive advantage

(D) permit business upturns to be more easily predicted

(E) cause managers to focus on a wider set of objectives

3. The primary function of the first paragraph of the

passage is to

(A) outline in brief the author’s argument

(B) anticipate challenges to the prescriptions that follow

(C) clarify some disputed definitions of economic terms

(D) summarize a number of long-accepted explanations

(E) present a historical context for the author’s


4. The author refers to Abernathy’s study (line 36) most

probably in order to

(A) qualify an observation about one rule governing


(B) address possible objections to a recommendation

about improving manufacturing competitiveness

(C) support an earlier assertion about one method of

increasing productivity

(D) suggest the centrality in the United States economy

of a particular manufacturing industry

(E) given an example of research that has questioned the

wisdom of revising a manufacturing strategy

5. The author’s attitude toward the culture in most factories

is best described as

(A) cautious

(B) critical

(C) disinterested

(D) respectful

(E) adulatory

6. In the passage, the author includes all of the following


(A) personal observation

(B) a business principle

(C) a definition of productivity

(D) an example of a successful company

(E) an illustration of a process technology

7. The author suggests that implementing conventional

cost-cutting as a way of increasing manufacturing

competitiveness is a strategy that is

(A) flawed and ruinous

(B) shortsighted and difficult to sustain

(C) popular and easily accomplished

(D) useful but inadequate

(E) misunderstood but promising

Passage 28

The settlement of the United States has occupied

traditional historians since 1893 when Frederick Jackson

Turner developed his Frontier Thesis, a thesis that

explained American development in terms of westward

(5) expansion. From the perspective of women’s history,

Turner’s exclusively masculine assumptions constitute a

major drawback: his defenders and critics alike have

reconstructed men’s, not women’s, lives on the frontier.

However, precisely because of this masculine orientation,

(10)revising the Frontier Thesis by focusing on women’s

experience introduces new themes into women’s

history—woman as lawmaker and entrepreneur—and,

consequently, new interpretations of women’s relation-

ship to capital, labor, and statute.

(15)Turner claimed that the frontier produced the indivi-

dualism that is the hallmark of American culture, and

that this individualism in turn promoted democratic

institutions and economic equality. He argued for the

frontier as an agent of social change. Most novelists and

(20) historians writing in the early to midtwentieth century

who considered women in the West, when they consid-

ered women at all, fell under Turner’s spell. In their

works these authors tended to glorify women’s contribu-

tions to frontier life. Western women, in Turnerian tradi-

(25) tion, were a fiercely independent, capable, and durable

lot, free from the constraints binding their eastern sisters.

This interpretation implied that the West provided a

congenial environment where women could aspire to

their own goals, free from constrictive stereotypes and

(30) sexist attitudes. In Turnerian terminology, the frontier

had furnished “a gate of escape from the bondage of the


By the middle of the twentieth century, the Frontier

Thesis fell into disfavor among historians. Later, Reac-

(35) tionist writers took the view that frontier women were

lonely, displaced persons in a hostile milieu that intensi-

fied the worst aspects of gender relations. The renais-

sance of the feminist movement during the 1970’s led to

the Stasist school, which sidestepped the good bad

(40) dichotomy and argued that frontier women lived lives

similar to the live of women in the East. In one now-

standard text, Faragher demonstrated the persistence of

the “cult of true womanhood” and the illusionary qual-

ity of change on the westward journey. Recently the

(45) Stasist position has been revised but not entirely

discounted by new research.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) provide a framework within which the history of

women in nineteenth-century America can be


(B) discuss divergent interpretations of women’s

experience on the western frontier

(C) introduce a new hypothesis about women’s

experience in nineteenth-century America

(D) advocate an empirical approach to women’s

experience on the western frontier

(E) resolve ambiguities in several theories about

women’s experience on the western frontier

2. Which of the following can be inferred about the

novelists and historians mentioned in lines 19-20?

(A) They misunderstood the powerful influence of

constrictive stereotypes on women in the East.

(B) They assumed that the frontier had offered more

opportunities to women than had the East.

(C) They included accurate information about women’s

experiences on the frontier.

(D) They underestimated the endurance and fortitude of

frontier women.

(E) They agreed with some of Turner’s assumptions

about frontier women, but disagreed with other

assumptions that he made.

3. Which of the following, if true, would provide

additional evidence for the Stasists’ argument as it is

described in the passage?

(A) Frontier women relied on smaller support groups of

relatives and friends in the West than they had in the


(B) The urban frontier in the West offered more

occupational opportunity than the agricultural

frontier offered.

(C) Women participated more fully in the economic

decisions of the family group in the West than they

had in the East.

(D) Western women received financial compensation for

labor that was comparable to what women received

in the East.

(E) Western women did not have an effect on divorce

laws, but lawmakers in the West were more

responsive to women’s concerns than lawmakers in

the East were.

4. According to the passage, Turner makes which of the

following connections in his Frontier Thesis?

Ⅰ. A connection between American individualism and

economic equality

Ⅱ. A connection between geographical expansion and

social change

Ⅲ. A connection between social change and financial


(A) I only


(C) Ⅲ only

(D) Ⅰand Ⅱ only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ

5. It can be inferred that which of the following statements

is consistent with the Reactionist position as it is

described in the passage?

(A) Continuity, not change, marked women’s lives as

they moved from East to West.

(B) Women’s experience on the North American frontier

has not received enough attention from modern


(C) Despite its rigors, the frontier offered women

opportunities that had not been available in the East.

(D) Gender relations were more difficult for women in

the West than they were in the East.

(E) Women on the North American frontier adopted new

roles while at the same time reaffirming traditional


6. Which of the following best describes the organization

of the passage?

(A) A current interpretation of a phenomenon is

described and then ways in which it was developed

are discussed.

(B) Three theories are presented and then a new

hypothesis that discounts those theories is described.

(C) An important theory and its effects are discussed and

then ways in which it has been revised are described.

(D) A controversial theory is discussed and then

viewpoints both for and against it are described.

(E) A phenomenon is described and then theories

concerning its correctness are discussed.

7. Which of the following is true of the Stasist school as it

is described in the passage?

(A) It provides new interpretations of women’s

relationship to work and the law.

(B) It resolves some of the ambiguities inherent in

Turnerian and Reactionist thought.

(C) It has recently been discounted by new research

gathered on women’s experience.

(D) It avoids extreme positions taken by other writers on

women’s history.

(E) It was the first school of thought to suggest

substantial revisions to the Frontier Thesis.

Passage 29

Studies of the Weddell seal in the laboratory have

described the physiological mechanisms that allow the

seal to cope with the extreme oxygen deprivation that

occurs during its longest dives, which can extend 500

(5) meters below the ocean’s surface and last for over 70

minutes. Recent field studies, however, suggest that

during more typical dives in the wild, this seal’s physio-

logical behavior is different.

In the laboratory, when the seal dives below the

(10) surface of the water and stops breathing, its heart beats

more slowly, requiring less oxygen, and its arteries

become constricted, ensuring that the seal’s blood

remains concentrated near those organs most crucial to

its ability to navigate underwater. The seal essentially

(15) shuts off the flow of blood to other organs, which either

stop functioning until the seal surfaces or switch to an

anaerobic (oxygen-independent) metabolism. The latter

results in the production of large amounts of lactic acid

which can adversely affect the pH of the seal’s blood

(20) but since the anaerobic metabolism occurs only in those

tissues which have been isolated from the seal’s blood

supply, the lactic acid is released into the seal’s blood

only after the seal surfaces, when the lungs, liver, and

other organs quickly clear the acid from the seal’s blood-

(25) stream.

Recent field studies, however, reveal that on dives in

the wild, the seal usually heads directly for its prey and

returns to the surface in less than twenty minutes. The

absence of high levels of lactic acid in the seal’s blood

(30) after such dives suggests that during them, the seal’s

organs do not resort to the anaerobic metabolism

observed in the laboratory, but are supplied with oxygen

from the blood. The seal’s longer excursions underwater,

during which it appears to be either exploring distant

(35) routes or evading a predator, do evoke the diving

response seen in the laboratory. But why do the seal’s

laboratory dives always evoke this response, regardless

of their length or depth? Some biologists speculate that

because in laboratory dives the seal is forcibly

(40) submerged, it does not know how long it will remain

underwater and so prepares for the worst.

1. The passage provides information to support which of

the following generalizations?

(A) Observations of animals’ physiological behavior in

the wild are not reliable unless verified by laboratory


(B) It is generally less difficult to observe the

physiological behavior of an animal in the wild than

in the laboratory.

(C) The level of lactic acid in an animal’s blood is likely

to be higher when it is searching for prey than when

it s evading predators.

(D) The level of lactic acid in an animal’s blood is likely

to be lowest during those periods in which it

experiences oxygen deprivation.

(E) The physiological behavior of animals in a

laboratory setting is not always consistent with

their physiological behavior in the wild.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that by describing the

Weddell seal as preparing “for the worst” (line 41),

biologists mean that it

(A) prepares to remain underwater for no longer than

twenty minutes

(B) exhibits physiological behavior similar to that which

characterizes dives in which it heads directly for its


(C) exhibits physiological behavior similar to that which

characterizes its longest dives in the wild.

(D) begins to exhibit predatory behavior

(E) clears the lactic acid from its blood before

attempting to dive

3. The passage suggests that during laboratory dives, the

pH of the Weddell seal’s blood is not adversely

affected by the

production of lactic acid because

(A) only those organs that are essential to the seal’s

ability to navigate underwater revert to an anaerobic


(B) the seal typically reverts to an anaerobic metabolism

only at the very end of the dive

(C) organs that revert to an anaerobic metabolism are

temporarily isolated from the seal’s bloodstream

(D) oxygen continues to be supplied to organs that clear

lactic acid from the seal’s bloodstream

(E) the seal remains submerged for only short periods of


4. Which of the following best summarizes the main point

of the passage?

(A) Recent field studies have indicated that descriptions

of the physiological behavior of the Weddell seal

during laboratory dives are not applicable to its most

typical dives in the wild.

(B) The Weddell seal has developed a number of unique

mechanisms that enable it to remain submerged at

depths of up to 500 meters for up to 70 minutes.

(C) The results of recent field studies have made it

necessary for biologists to revise previous

perceptions of how the Weddell seal behaves

physiologically during its longest dives in the wild.

(D) Biologists speculate that laboratory studies of the

physiological behavior of seals during dives lasting

more than twenty minutes would be more accurate if

the seals were not forcibly submerged.

(E) How the Weddell seal responds to oxygen

deprivation during its longest dives appears to

depend on whether the seal is searching for prey or

avoiding predators during such dives.

5. According to the author, which of the following is true

of the laboratory studies mentioned in line 1 ?

(A) They fail to explain how the seal is able to tolerate

the increased production of lactic acid by organs

that revert to an anaerobic metabolism during its

longest dives in the wild.

(B) They present an oversimplified account of

mechanisms that the Weddell seal relies on during its

longest dives in the wild.

(C) They provide evidence that undermines the view

that the Weddell seal relies on an anaerobic

metabolism during its most typical dives in the wild.

(D) They are based on the assumption that Weddell seals

rarely spend more than twenty minutes underwater

on a typical dive in the wild.

(E) They provide an accurate account of the

physiological behavior of Weddell seals during

those dives in the wild in which they are either

evading predators or exploring distant routes.

6. The author cites which of the following as characteristic

of the Weddell seal’s physiological behavior during

dives observed in the laboratory?

Ⅰ. A decrease in the rate at which the seal’s heart beats

Ⅱ. A constriction of the seal’s arteries

Ⅲ. A decrease in the levels of lactic acid in the seal’s


Ⅳ. A temporary halt in the functioning of certain organs

(A) Ⅰand Ⅲ only

(B) Ⅱ and Ⅳ only

(C) Ⅱ and Ⅲ only

(D) Ⅰ,Ⅱ, and Ⅳ only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅲ, and Ⅳ only

7. The passage suggests that because Weddell seals are

forcibly submerged during laboratory dives, they do

which of the following?

(A) Exhibit the physiological responses that are

characteristic of dives in the wild that last less than

twenty minutes.

(B) Exhibit the physiological responses that are

characteristic of the longer dives they undertake in

the wild.

(C) Cope with oxygen deprivation less effectively than

they do on typical dives in the wild.

(D) Produce smaller amounts of lactic acid than they do

on typical dives in the wild.

(E) Navigate less effectively than they do on typical

dives in the wild

Passage 30

Since the early 1970’s, historians have begun to

devote serious attention to the working class in the

United States. Yet while we now have studies of

working-class communities and culture, we know

(5) remarkably little of worklessness. When historians have

paid any attention at all to unemployment, they have

focused on the Great Depression of the 1930’s. The

narrowness of this perspective ignores the pervasive

recessions and joblessness of the previous decades, as

(10) Alexander Keyssar shows in his recent book. Examining

the period 1870-1920, Keyssar concentrates on Massa-

chusetts, where the historical materials are particularly

rich, and the findings applicable to other industrial


(15 ) The unemployment rates that Keyssar calculates

appear to be relatively modest, at least by Great Depres-

sion standards: during the worst years, in the 1870’s

and 1890’s, unemployment was around 15 percent. Yet

Keyssar rightly understands that a better way to

(20) measure the impact of unemployment is to calculate

unemployment frequencies—measuring the percentage

of workers who experience any unemployment in the

course of a year. Given this perspective, joblessness

looms much larger.

(25) Keyssar also scrutinizes unemployment patterns

according to skill level, ethnicity, race, age, class, and

gender. He finds that rates of joblessness differed

primarily according to class: those in middle-class and

white-collar occupations were far less likely to be unem-

(30) ployed. Yet the impact of unemployment on a specific

class was not always the same. Even when dependent on

the same trade, adjoining communities could have

dramatically different unemployment rates. Keyssar uses

these differential rates to help explain a phenomenon

(35) that has puzzled historians—the startlingly high rate of

geographical mobility in the nineteenth-century United

States. But mobility was not the dominant working-class

strategy for coping with unemployment, nor was assis-

tance from private charities or state agencies. Self-help

(40) and the help of kin got most workers through jobless


While Keyssar might have spent more time develop-

ing the implications of his findings on joblessness for

contemporary public policy, his study, in its thorough

(45) research and creative use of quantitative and qualitative

evidence, is a model of historical analysis.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) recommending a new course of investigation

(B) summarizing and assessing a study

(C) making distinctions among categories

(D) criticizing the current state of a field

(E) comparing and contrasting two methods for

calculating data

2. The passage suggests that before the early 1970’s, which

of the following was true of the study by historians of

the working class in the United States?

(A) The study was infrequent or superficial, or both.

(B) The study was repeatedly criticized for its allegedly

narrow focus.

(C) The study relied more on qualitative than

quantitative evidence.

(D) The study focused more on the working-class

community than on working-class culture.

(E) The study ignored working-class joblessness during

the Great Depression.

3. According to the passage, which of the following is true

of Keyssar’s findings concerning unemployment in


(A) They tend to contradict earlier findings about such


(B) They are possible because Massachusetts has the

most easily accessible historical records.

(C) They are the first to mention the existence of high

rates of geographical mobility in the nineteenth


(D) They are relevant to a historical understanding of

the nature of unemployment in other states.

(E) They have caused historians to reconsider the role of

the working class during the Great Depression.

4. According to the passage, which of the following is true

of the unemployment rates mentioned in line 15

(A) They hovered, on average, around 15 percent during

the period 1870-1920.

(B) They give less than a full sense of the impact of

unemployment on working-class people.

(C) They overestimate the importance of middle class

and white-collar unemployment.

(D) They have been considered by many historians to

underestimate the extent of working-class


(E) They are more open to question when calculated for

years other than those of peak recession.

5. Which of the following statements about the

unemployment rate during the Great Depression can be

inferred from the passage?

(A) It was sometimes higher than 15 percent.

(B) It has been analyzed seriously only since the early


(C) It can be calculated more easily than can

unemployment frequency.

(D) It was never as high as the rate during the 1870’s.

(E) It has been shown by Keyssar to be lower than

previously thought.

6. According to the passage, Keyssar considers which of the

following to be among the important predictors of the

likelihood that a particular person would be unemployed in

late nineteenth-century Massachusetts?

Ⅰ. The person’s class

Ⅱ. Where the person lived or worked

Ⅲ. The person’s age

(A) Ⅰonly

(B) Ⅱonly

(C) Ⅰand Ⅱ only

(D) Ⅰand Ⅲ only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ, and Ⅲ

7. The author views Keyssar’s study with

(A) impatient disapproval

(B) wary concern

(C) polite skepticism

(D) scrupulous neutrality

(E) qualified admiration

8. Which of the following, if true, would most strongly

support Keyssar’s findings as they are described by the


(A) Boston, Massachusetts, and Quincy, Massachusetts,

adjoining communities, had a higher rate of

unemployment for working-class people in 1870

than in 1890.

(B) White-collar professionals such as attorneys had as

much trouble as day laborers in maintaining a steady

level of employment throughout the period 1870-


(C) Working-class women living in Cambridge,

Massachusetts, were more likely than working-class

men living in Cambridge to be unemployed for some

period of time during the year 1873.

(D) In the 1890’s, shoe-factory workers moved away in

large numbers from Chelmsford, Massachusetts,

where shoe factories were being replaced by other

industries, to adjoining West Chelmsford, where the

shoe industry flourished.

(E) In the late nineteenth century, workers of all classes

in Massachusetts were more likely than workers of all

classes in other states to move their place of

residence from one location to another within the


Passage 31

The number of women directors appointed to corpo-

rate boards in the United States has increased dramati-

cally, but the ratio of female to male directors remains

low. Although pressure to recruit women directors,

(5) unlike that to employ women in the general work force,

does not derive from legislation, it is nevertheless real.

Although small companies were the first to have

women directors, large corporations currently have a

higher percentage of women on their boards. When the

(10) chairs of these large corporations began recruiting

women to serve on boards, they initially sought women

who were chief executive officers (CEO’s) of large corpo-

rations. However, such women CEO’s are still rare. In

addition, the ideal of six CEO’s (female or male ) serving

(15) on the board of each of the largest corporations is realiz-

able only if every CEO serves on six boards. This raises

the specter of director overcommitment and the resultant

dilution of contribution. Consequently, the chairs next

sought women in business who had the equivalent of

(20) CEO experience. However, since it is only recently that

large numbers of women have begun to rise in manage-

ment, the chairs began to recruit women of high achieve-

ment outside the business world. Many such women are

well known for their contributions in government,

(25) education, and the nonprofit sector. The fact that the

women from these sectors who were appointed were

often acquaintances of the boards’ chairs seems quite

reasonable: chairs have always considered it important

for directors to interact comfortably in the boardroom.

30) Although many successful women from outside the

business world are unknown to corporate leaders, these

women are particularly qualified to serve on boards

because of the changing nature of corporations. Today a

company’s ability to be responsive to the concerns of the

35) community and the environment can influence that

company’s growth and survival. Women are uniquely

positioned to be responsive to some of these concerns.

Although conditions have changed, it should be remem-

bered that most directors of both sexes are over fifty

(40) years old. Women of that generation were often encour-

aged to direct their attention toward efforts to improve

the community. This fact is reflected in the career devel-

opment of most of the outstandingly successful women

of the generation now in their fifties, who currently serve

(45) on corporate boards: 25 percent are in education and

22 percent are in government, law, and the nonprofit


One organization of women directors is helping busi-

ness become more responsive to the changing needs of

(50) society by raising the level of corporate awareness about

social issues, such as problems with the economy,

government regulation, the aging population, and the

environment. This organization also serves as a resource

center of information on accomplished women who are

(55) potential candidates for corporate boards.

1. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree

with which of the following statements about

achievement of the “ideal” mentioned in line 14?

(A) It has only recently become a possibility.

(B) It would be easier to meet if more CEO’s were


(C) It is very close to being a reality for most corporate


(D) It might affect the quality of directors’ service to


(E) It would be more realizable if CEO’s had a more

extensive range of business experience.

2. According to the passage, the pressure to appoint

women to corporate boards differs from the pressure to

employ women in the work force in which of the

following ways?

(A) Corporate boards are under less pressure because they

have such a small number of openings.

(B) Corporate boards have received less pressure from

stockholders, consumers, and workers within

companies to include women on their boards.

(C) Corporate boards have received less pressure from

the media and the public to include women on their


(D) Corporations have only recently been pressured to

include women on their boards.

(E) Corporations are not subject to statutory penalty for

failing to include women on their boards.

3. All of the following are examples of issues that the

organization described in the last paragraph would be

likely to advise corporations on EXCEPT

(A) long-term inflation

(B) health and safety regulations

(C) retirement and pension programs

(D) the energy shortage

(E) how to develop new markets

4. It can be inferred from the passage that, when seeking to

appoint new members to a corporation’s board, the chair

traditionally looked for candidates who

(A) had legal and governmental experience

(B) had experience dealing with community affairs

(C) could work easily with other members of the board

(D) were already involved in establishing policy for that


(E) had influential connections outside the business


5. According to the passage, which of the following is true

about women outside the business world who are

currently serving on corporate boards?

(A) Most do not serve on more than one board.

(B) A large percentage will eventually work on the staff

of corporations.

(C) Most were already known to the chairs of the board

to which they were appointed.

(D) A larger percentage are from government and law

than are from the nonprofit sector.

(E) Most are less than fifty years old.

6. The passage suggests that corporations of the past differ

from modern corporations in which of the following


(A) Corporations had greater input on government

policies affecting the business community.

(B) Corporations were less responsive to the financial

needs of their employees.

(C) The ability of a corporation to keep up with

changing markets was not a crucial factor in its


(D) A corporation’s effectiveness in coping with

community needs was less likely to affect its growth

and prosperity.

(E) Corporations were subject to more stringent

government regulations.

7. Which of the following best describes the organization

of the passage?

(A) A problem is described, and then reasons why

various proposed solutions succeeded or failed are


(B) A problem is described, and then an advantage of

resolving it is offered.

(C) A problem is described, and then reasons for its

continuing existence are summarized.

(D) The historical origins of a problem are described,

and then various measures that have successfully

resolved it are discussed.

(E) The causes of a problem are described, and then its

effects are discussed.

8. It can be inferred from the passage that factors making

women uniquely valuable members of modern corporate

boards would include which of the following?

Ⅰ. The nature of modern corporations

Ⅱ. The increased number of women CEO’s

Ⅲ. The careers pursued by women currently available to

serve on corporate boards

(A) Ⅰonly

(B) Ⅱonly

(C) Ⅲ only

(D) Ⅰand Ⅲ only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ, and Ⅲ

Passage 32

Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported

from the Old World for the staggering disparity between

the indigenous population of America in 1492—new esti-

mates of which soar as high as 100 million, or approxi-

(5) mately one-sixth of the human race at that time—and

the few million full-blooded Native Americans alive at

the end of the nineteenth century. There is no doubt that

chronic disease was an important factor in the precipi-

tous decline, and it is highly probable that the greatest

(10) killer was epidemic disease, especially as manifested in

virgin-soil epidemics.

Virgin-soil epidemics are those in which the popula-

tions at risk have had no previous contact with the

diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologi-

(15) cally almost defenseless. That virgin-soil epidemics were

important in American history is strongly indicated by

evidence that a number of dangerous maladies—small-

pox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and undoubtedly

several more—were unknown in the pre-Columbian

(20) New World. The effects of their sudden introduction

are demonstrated in the early chronicles of America,

which contain reports of horrendous epidemics and steep

population declines, confirmed in many cases by recent

quantitative analyses of Spanish tribute records and

(25) other sources. The evidence provided by the documents

of British and French colonies is not as definitive

because the conquerors of those areas did not establish

permanent settlements and begin to keep continuous

records until the seventeenth century, by which time the

(30) worst epidemics had probably already taken place.

Furthermore, the British tended to drive the native

populations away, rather than enslaving them as the

Spaniards did, so that the epidemics of British America

occurred beyond the range of colonists’ direct

(35) observation.

Even so, the surviving records of North America do

contain references to deadly epidemics among the indige-

nous population. In 1616-1619 an epidemic, possibly of

bubonic or pneumonic plague, swept coastal New

(40) England, killing as many as nine out of ten. During the

1630’s smallpox, the disease most fatal to the Native

American people, eliminated half the population of the

Huron and Iroquois confederations. In the 1820’s fever

devastated the people of the Columbia River area,

(45) killing eight out of ten of them.

Unfortunately, the documentation of these and other

epidemics is slight and frequently unreliable, and it is

ecessary to supplement what little we do know with

evidence from recent epidemics among Native Ameri-

(50) cans. For example, in 1952 an outbreak of measles

among the Native American inhabitants of Ungava Bay.

Quebec, affected 99 percent of the population and killed

7 percent, even though some had the benefit of modern

medicine. Cases such as this demonstrate that even

(55) diseases that are not normally fatal can have devastating

consequences when they strike an immunologically

defenseless community.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) refute a common misconception

(B) provide support for a hypothesis

(C) analyze an argument

(D) suggest a solution to a dilemma

(E) reconcile opposing viewpoints

2. According to the passage, virgin-soil epidemics can be

distinguished from other catastrophic outbreaks of

disease in that virgin-soil epidemics

(A) recur more frequently than other chronic diseases

(B) affect a minimum of one-half of a given population

(C) involve populations with no prior exposure to a


(D) usually involve a number of interacting diseases

(E) are less responsive to medical treatment than are

other diseases

3. According to the passage, the British colonists

wereunlike the Spanish colonists in that the British


(A) collected tribute from the native population

(B) kept records from a very early date

(C) drove Native Americans off the land

(D) were unable to provide medical care against

epidemic disease

(E) enslaved the native populations in America

4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage

concerning Spanish tribute records?

(A) They mention only epidemics of smallpox.

(B) They were instituted in 1492.

(C) They were being kept prior to the seventeenth


(D) They provide quantitative and qualitative evidence

about Native American populations.

(E) They prove that certain diseases were unknown in

the pre-Columbian New World.

5. The author implies which of the following about


(A) It is not usually a fatal disease.

(B) It ceased to be a problem by the seventeenth century.

(C) It is the disease most commonly involved in virgin-

soil epidemics.

(D) It was not a significant problem in Spanish colonies.

(E) It affects only those who are immunologically

defenseless against it.

6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage

about the Native American inhabitants of Ungava Bay?

(A) They were almost all killed by the 1952 epidemic.

(B) They were immunologically defenseless against


(C) They were the last native people to be struck by a

virgin- soil epidemic.

(D) They did not come into frequent contact with white

Americans until the twentieth century.

(E) They had been inoculated against measles.

7. The author mentions the 1952 measles outbreak most

probably in order to

(A) demonstrate the impact of modern medicine on

epidemic disease

(B) corroborate the documentary evidence of epidemic

disease in colonial America

(C) refute allegations of unreliability made against the

historical record of colonial America

(D) advocate new research into the continuing problem

of epidemic disease

(E) challenge assumptions about how the statistical

evidence of epidemics should be interpreted

8. Which of the following, if newly discovered, would

most seriously weaken the author’s argument

concerning the importance of virgin-soil epidemics in

the depopulation of Native Americans?

(A) Evidence setting the pre-Columbian population of

the New World at only 80 million

(B) Spanish tribute records showing periodic population


(C) Documents detailing sophisticated Native American

medical procedures

(D) Fossils indicating Native American cortact with

smallpox prior to 1492

(E) Remains of French settlements dating back to the

sixteenth century

Passage 33

Until recently most astronomers believed that the

space between the galaxies in our universe was a near-

perfect vacuum. This orthodox view of the universe is

now being challenged by astronomers who believe that a

(5) heavy “rain” of gas is falling into many galaxies from

the supposedly empty space around them. The gas

apparently condenses into a collection of small stars,

each a little larger than the planet Jupiter. These stars

vastly outnumber the other stars in a given galaxy. The

(10) amount of “intergalactic rainfall” into some of these

galaxies has been enough to double their mass in the

time since they formed. Scientists have begun to suspect

that this intergalactic gas is probably a mixture of gases

left over from the “big bang” when the galaxies were

(15) formed and gas was forced out of galaxies by supernova


It is well known that when gas is cooled at a constant

pressure its volume decreases. Thus, the physicist Fabian

reasoned that as intergalactic gas cools, the cooler gas

(20) shrinks inward toward the center of the galaxy. Mean-

while its place is taken by hotter intergalactic gas from

farther out on the edge of the galaxy, which cools as it is

compressed and flows into the galaxy. The net result is a

continuous flow of gas, starting as hot gases in inter-

(25) galactic space and ending as a drizzle of cool gas called a

“cooling flow,” falling into the central galaxy.

A fairly heretical idea in the 1970’s, the cooling-flow

theory gained support when Fabian observed a cluster

of galaxies in the constellation Perseus and found the

(30) central galaxy, NGC 1275, to be a strange-looking object

with irregular, thin strands of gas radiating from it.

According to previous speculation, these strands were

gases that had been blown out by an explosion in the

galaxy. Fabian, however, disagreed. Because the strands

(35) of gas radiating from NGC 1275 are visible in optical

photographs, Fabian suggested that such strands consisted

not of gas blown out of the galaxy but of cooling flows

of gas streaming inward. He noted that the wavelengths

of the radiation emitted by a gas would changes as the

(40) gas cooled, so that as the gas flowed into the galaxy and

became cooler, it would emit not x-rays, but visible light,

like that which was captured in the photographs. Fabian’s

hypothesis was supported by Canizares’ determination in

1982 that most of the gas in the Perseus cluster was at a

(45) temperature of 80 million degrees Kelvin, whereas the

gas immediately surrounding NGC 1275 (the subject of

the photographs) was at one-tenth this temperature.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) illustrate a hypothesis about the origin of galaxies

(B) provide evidence to dispute an accepted theory

about the evolution of galaxies

(C) summarize the state of and prospects for research in

intergalactic astronomy

(D) report new data on the origins of intergalactic gas

(E) reconcile opposing views on the formation of

intergalactic gas

2. The author uses the phrase “orthodox view of the

universe” (line 3) to refer to the belief that

(A) the space between the galaxies is devoid of matter

(B) the space between galaxies is occupied by stars that

cannot be detected by optical photographs

(C) galaxies have decreased in mass by half since their


(D) galaxies contain stars, each the size of Jupiter, which

form clusters

(E) galaxies are being penetrated by gas forced out of

other galaxies by supernova explosions.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that, if Fabian is

correct, gas in the peripheral regions of a galaxy cluster

(A) streams outward into intergalactic space

(B) is hotter than gas in the central regions of the galaxy

(C) is composed primarily of gas left over from the big


(D) results in the creation of unusually large stars

(E) expands to increase the size of the galaxy

4. The author of the passage probably mentions Canizares’

determination in order to

(A) clarify an ambiguity in Fabian’s research findings

(B) illustrate a generalization about the temperature of

gas in a galaxy cluster

(C) introduce a new argument in support of the orthodox

view of galaxies

(D) provide support for Fabian’s assertions about the

Perseus galaxies

(E) provide an alternate point of view concerning the

movement of gas within a galaxy cluster

5. According to the passage, Fabian believes that gas

flowing into a central galaxy has which of the following


(A) It is one-tenth hotter than it was in the outer regions

of the galaxy cluster.

(B) It emits radiation with wavelengths that change as

the gas moves toward the center of the galaxy.

(C) The total amount of radiation emitted diminishes as

the gas cools.

(D) It loses 90 percent of its energy as it moves to the

center of the galaxy.

(E) It condenses at a rate much slower than the rate of

decrease in temperature as the gas flows inward.

6. According to the passage, Fabian’s theory makes use of

which of the following principles?

(A) Gas emanating from an explosion will be hotter the

more distant it is from the origin.

(B) The wavelength of radiation emitted by a gas as it

cools remains constant.

(C) If pressure remains constant, the volume of a gas

will decrease as it is cooled.

(D) The volume of a gas will increase as the pressure


(E) As gas cools, its density decreases.

7. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the

following is true of Fabian’s theory?

(A) It did not receive approval until Canizares’ work

was published.

(B) It was not widely accepted in the 1970’s.

(C) It did not receive support initially because

technology was not available to confirm its tenets.

(D) It supports earlier speculation that intergalactic gas

was largely the result of explosions outside the


(E) It was widely challenged until x-ray evidence of gas

temperatures in NGC 1275 had been presented.

Passage 34

Kazuko Nakane’s history of the early Japanese immi-

grants to central California’s Pajaro Valley focuses on

the development of farming communities there from

1890 to 1940. The Issei (first-generation immigrants)

(5) were brought into the Pajaro Valley to raise sugar beets.

Like Issei laborers in American cities, Japanese men in

rural areas sought employment via the “boss” system.

The system comprised three elements: immigrant wage

laborers; Issei boardinghouses where laborers stayed;

(10) and labor contractors, who gathered workers for a

particular job and then negotiated a contract between

workers and employer. This same system was originally

utilized by the Chinese laborers who had preceded the

Japanese. A related institution was the “labor club,”

(15)which provided job information and negotiated employ-

ment contracts and other legal matters, such as the

rental of land, for Issei who chose to belong and paid an

annual fee to the cooperative for membership.

When the local sugar beet industry collapsed in 1902,

(20) the Issei began to lease land from the valley’s strawberry

farmers. The Japanese provided the labor and the crop

was divided between laborers and landowners. The Issei

began to operate farms, they began to marry and start

families, forming an established Japanese American

(30) community. Unfortunately, the Issei’s efforts to attain

agricultural independence were hampered by govern-

ment restrictions, such as the Alien Land Law of 1913.

But immigrants could circumvent such exclusionary laws

by leasing or purchasing land in their American-born

(35) children’s names.

Nakane’s case study of one rural Japanese American

community provides valuable information about the

lives and experiences of the Isseil. It is, however, too

particularistic. This limitation derives from Nakane’s

(40) methodology—that of oral history—which cannot

substitute for a broader theoretical or comparative

perspective. Furture research might well consider two

issues raised by her study: were the Issei of the Pajaro

Valley similar to or different from Issei in urban settings,

(45) and what variations existed between rural Japanese

American communities?

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) defend a controversial hypothesis presented in a

history of early Japanese immigrants to Califronia

(B) dismiss a history of an early Japanese settlement in

California as narrow and ill constructed

(C) summarize and critique a history of an early

Japanese settlement in California

(D) compare a history of one Japanese American

community with studies of Japanese settlements

throughout California

(E) examine the differences between Japanese and

Chinese immigrants to central California in the


2. Which of the following best describes a “labor club,” as

defined in the passage?

(A) An organization to which Issei were compelled to

belong if they sought employment in the Pajaro


(B) An association whose members included labor

contractors and landowning “bosses”

(C) A type of farming corporation set up by Issei who

had resided in the Pajaro Valley for some time

(D) A cooperative association whose members were

dues-paying Japanese laborers

(E) A social organization to which Japanese laborers and

their families belonged

3. Based on information in the passage, which of the

following statements concerning the Alien Land Law of

1913 is most accurate?

(A) It excluded American-born citizens of Japanese

ancestry from landownership.

(B) It sought to restrict the number of foreign

immigrants to California.

(C) It successfully prevented Issei from ever purchasing


(D) It was applicable to first-generation immigrants but

not to their American-born children.

(E) It was passed under pressure from the Pajaro

Valley’s strawberry farmers.

4. Several Issei families join together to purchase a

strawberry field and the necessary farming equipment.

Such a situation best exemplifies which of the

following, as it is described in the passage?

(A) A typical sharecropping agreement

(B) A farming corporation

(C) A “labor club”

(D) The “boss” system

(E) Circumvention of the Alien Land Law

5. The passage suggests that which of the following was an

indirect consequence of the collapse of the sugar beet

industry in the Pajaro Valley?

(A) The Issei formed a permanent, family-based


(B) Boardinghouses were built to accommodate the


(C) The Issei began to lease land in their children’s


(D) The Issei adopted a labor contract system similar to


used by Chinese immigrants.

(E) The Issei suffered a massive dislocation caused by


6. The author of the passage would most likely agree that

which of the following, if it had been included in

Nakane’s study, would best remedy the particularistic

nature of that study?

(A) A statistical table comparing per capita income of

Issei wage laborers and sharecroppers in the Pajaro


(B) A statistical table showing per capita income of

Issei in the Pajaro Valley from 1890 to 1940

(C) A statistical table showing rates of farm ownership

by Japanese Americans in four central California

counties from 1890 to 1940

(D) A discussion of original company documents

dealing with the Pajaro Valley sugar beet industry at

the turn of the century

(E) Transcripts of interviews conducted with members

of the Pajaro Valley Japanese American community

who were born in the 1920’s and 1930’s.

7. It can be inferred from the passage that, when the Issei

began to lease land from the Valley’s strawberry

farmers, the Issei most probably did which of the


(A) They used profits made from selling the strawberry

crop to hire other Issei.

(B) They negotiated such agricultural contracts using the

“boss” system.

(C) They paid for the use of the land with a share of the

strawberry crop.

(D) They earned higher wages than when they raised

sugar beets.

(E) They violated the Alien Land Law.

Passage 35

It can be argued that much consumer dissatisfaction

with marketing strategies arises from an inability to aim

advertising at only the likely buyers of a given product.

There are three groups of consumers who are affected

(5) by the marketing process. First, there is the market

segment—people who need the commodity in question.

Second, there is the program target—people in the

market segment with the “best fit” characteristics for a

specific product. Lots of people may need trousers, but

(10) only a few qualify as likely buyers of very expensive

designer trousers. Finally, there is the program audience

―all people who are actually exposed to the

marketing program without regard to whether they need

or want the product.

(15) These three groups are rarely identical. An exception

occurs occasionally in cases where customers for a

particular industrial product may be few and easily iden-

tifiable. Such customers, all sharing a particular need,

are likely to form a meaningful target, for example, all

(20) companies with a particular application of the product

in question, such as high-speed fillers of bottles at brew-

eries. In such circumstances, direct selling (marketing that

reaches only the program target) is likely to be

economically justified, and highly specialized trade

(25) media exist to expose members of the program target—

and only members of the program target—to the

marketing program.

Most consumer-goods markets are significantly

different. Typically, there are many rather than few

(30) potential customers. Each represents a relatively small

percentage of potential sales. Rarely do members of a

particular market segment group themselves neatly into

a meaningful program target. There are substantial

differences among consumers with similar demographic

(35) characteristics. Even with all the past decade’s advances

in information technology, direct selling of consumer

goods is rare, and mass marketing—a marketing

approach that aims at a wide audience—remains the

only economically feasible mode. Unfortunately, there

(40) are few media that allow the marketer to direct a

marketing program exclusively to the program target.

Inevitably, people get exposed to a great deal of

marketing for products in which they have no interest

and so they become annoyed.

1. The passage suggests which of the following about

highly specialized trade media?

(A) They should be used only when direct selling is not

economically feasible.

(B) They can be used to exclude from the program

audience people who are not part of the program


(C) They are used only for very expensive products.

(D) They are rarely used in the implementation of

marketing programs for industrial products.

(E) They are used only when direct selling has not

reached the appropriate market segment.

2. According to the passage, most consumer-goods

markets share which of the following characteristics?

Ⅰ. Customers who differ significantly from each other

Ⅱ. Large numbers of potential customers

Ⅲ. Customers who each represent a small percentage of

potential sales

(A) Ⅰ only

(B) Ⅱ only

(C) Ⅰ and Ⅱ only

(D) Ⅱ and Ⅲ only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ, and Ⅲ

3. The passage suggests which of the following about

direct selling?

(A) It is used in the marketing of most industrial


(B) It is often used in cases where there is a large

program target.

(C) It is not economically feasible for most marketing


(D) It is used only for products for which there are many

potential customers.

(E) It is less successful at directing a marketing program

to the target audience than are other marketing


4. The author mentions “trousers” (lines 9 and 11) most

likely in order to

(A) make a comparison between the program target and

the program audience

(B) emphasize the similarities between the market

segment and the program target

(C) provide an example of the way three groups of

consumers are affected by a marketing program

(D) clarify the distinction between the market segment

and the program target

(E) introduce the concept of the program audience

5. Which of the following best exemplifies the situation

described in the last two sentences of the passage?

(A) A product suitable for women age 21-30 is marketed

at meetings attended only by potential customers.

(B) A company develops a new product and must

develop an advertising campaign to create a market

for it.

(C) An idea for a specialized product remains

unexplored because media exposure of the product

to its few potential customers would be too


(D) A new product is developed and marketers collect

demographic data on potential consumers before

developing a specific advertising campaign.

(E) A product suitable for men age 60 and over is

advertised in a magazine read by adults of all ages.

6. The passage suggests that which of the following is true

about the marketing of industrial products like those

discussed in the third paragraph?

(A) The market segment and program target are


(B) Mass marketing is the only feasible way of

advertising such products.

(C) The marketing program cannot be directed

specifically to the program target.

(D) More customers would be needed to justify the

expense of direct selling.

(E) The program audience would necessarily be made

up of potential customers, regardless of the

marketing approach that was used.

7. The passage supports which of the following statements

about demographic characteristics and marketing?

(A) Demographic research is of no use in determining

how successful a product will be with a particular

group of consumers.

(B) A program audience is usually composed of people

with similar demographic characteristics.

(C) Psychological factors are more important than

demographic factors in defining a market segments.

(D) Consumers with similar demographic characteristics

do not necessarily form a meaningful program


(E) Collecting demographic data is the first step that

marketers take in designing a marketing program.

8. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the

following is true for most consumer-goods markets?

(A) The program audience is smaller than the market


(B) The program audience and the market segment are

usually identical.

(C) The market segment and the program target are

usually identical.

(D) The program target is larger than the market


(E) The program target and the program audience are

not usually identical.

Passage 36

Protein synthesis begins when the gene encoding a

protein is activated. The gene’s sequence of nucleotides is

transcribed into a molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA),

which reproduces the information contained in that

(5) sequence. Transported outside the nucleus to the cyto-

plasm, the mRNA is translated into the protein it

encodes by an organelle known as a ribosome, which

strings together amino acids in the order specified by the

sequence of elements in the mRNA molecule. Since the

(10) amount of mRNA in a cell determines the amount of the

corresponding protein, factors affecting the abundance

of mRNA’s play a major part in the normal functioning

of a cell by appropriately regulating protein synthesis.

For example, an excess of certain proteins can cause cells

(15) to proliferate abnormally and become cancerous; a lack

of the protein insulin results in diabetes.

Biologists once assumed that the variable rates at

which cells synthesize different mRNA’s determine the

quantities of mRNA’s and their corresponding proteins

(20) in a cell. However, recent investigations have shown that

the concentrations of most mRNA’s correlate best, not

with their synthesis rate, but rather with the equally vari-

able rates at which cells degrade the different mRNA’s

in their cytoplasm. If a cell degrades both a rapidly and

(25) a slowly synthesized mRNA slowly, both mRNA’s will

accumulate to high levels.

An important example of this phenomenon is the

development of red blood cells from their unspecialized

parent cells in bone marrow. For red blood cells to accu-

(30) mulate sufficient concentrations of hemoglobin (which

transports oxygen) to carry out their main function, the

cells’ parent cells must simultaneously produce more of

the constituent proteins of hemoglobin and less of most

other proteins. To do this, the parent cells halt synthesis

(35) of nonhemoglobin mRNA’s in the nucleus and rapidly

degrade copies of the nonhemoglobin mRNA’s remaining

in the cytoplasm. Halting synthesis of mRNA alone would

not affect the quantities of proteins synthesized by the

mRNA’s still existing in the cytoplasm. Biologists now

(40) believe that most cells can regulate protein production

most efficiently by varying both mRNA synthesis and

degradation, as developing red cells do, rather than by

just varying one or the other.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing the

(A) influence of mRNA concentrations on the

development of red blood cells

(B) role of the synthesis and degradation of mRNA in

cell functioning

(C) mechanism by which genes are transcribed into


(D) differences in mRNA concentrations in cell nuclei

and in the cytoplasm

(E) way in which mRNA synthesis contributes to the

onset of diabetes

2. The passage suggests that a biologist who held the view

described in the first sentence of the second paragraph

would most probably also have believed which of the


(A) The rate of degradation of specific mRNA’s has

little effect on protein concentrations.

(B) The rate of degradation of specific mRNA’s should

be studied intensively.

(C) The rates of synthesis and degradation for any given

mRNA are normally equal.

(D) Different mRNA’s undergo degradation at widely

varying rates.

(E) Most mRNA’s degrade very rpaidly.

3. Which of the following best describes the relationship

between the second and third paragraphs of the passage?

(A) The second paragraph presents arguments in support

of a new theory and the third paragraph presents

arguments against that same theory.

(B) The second paragraph describes a traditional view

and the third paragraph describes the view that has

replaced it on the basis of recent investigations.

(C) The third paragraph describes a specific case of a

phenomenon that is described generally in the

second paragraph.

(D) The third paragraph describes an investigation that

was undertaken to resolve problems raised by

phenomena described in the second paragraph.

(E) Both paragraphs describe in detail specific examples

of the phenomenon that is introduced in the first


4. The accumulation of concentrations of hemoglobin in

red blood cells is mentioned in the passage as an

example of which of the following?

(A) The effectiveness of simultaneous variation of the

rates of synthesis and degradation of mRNA

(B) The role of the ribosome in enabling a parent cell to

develop properly into a more specialized form

(C) The importance of activating the genes for particular

proteins at the correct moment

(D) The abnormal proliferation of a protein that

threatens to make the cell cancerous

(E) The kind of evidence that biologists relied on for

support of a view of mRNA synthesis that is now

considered obsolete

5. To begin to control a disease caused by a protein

deficiency, the passage suggests that a promising

experimental treatment would be to administer a drug

that would reduce

(A) only the degradation rate for the mRNA of the

protein involved

(B) only the synthesis rate for the mRNA of the protein


(C) both the synthesis and degradation rates for the

mRNA of the protein involved

(D) the incidence of errors in the transcription of

mRNA’s from genetic nucleotide sequences

(E) the rate of activity of ribosomes in the cytoplasm of

most cells

6. According to the passage, which of the following best

describes the current view on the relationship between

the synthesis and the degradation of mRNA in

regulating protein synthesis?

(A) Biologists have recently become convinced that the

ribosome controls the rates of synthesis and

degradation of mRNA.

(B) There is no consensus among biologists as to the

significance of mRNA degradation in regulating

protein synthesis.

(C) The concept of mRNA degradation is so new that

most biologists still believe that the vital role in

protein regulation belongs to mRNA synthesis.

(D) Degradation of mRNA is now considered to be the

key process and mRNA synthesis is no longer

believed to play a significant role.

(E) Degradation of mRNA is now considered to be as

important as mRNA synthesis has been, and still is,

believed to be.

7. According to the passage, which of the following can

happen when protein synthesis is not appropriately


(A) Diabetes can result from errors that occur when the

ribosomes translate mRNA into protein.

(B) Cancer can result from an excess of certain proteins

and diabetes can result from an insulin deficiency.

(C) A deficiency of red blood cells can occur if bone

marrow cells produce too much hemoglobin.

(D) Cancer can be caused by excessively rapid

degradation of certain amino acids in the cytoplasm

of cells.

(E) Excessive synthesis of one protein can trigger

increased degradation of mRNA’s for other proteins

and create severe protein imbalances.

8. The passage suggests that a biologist who detected high

levels of two proteins in a certain type of cell would be

likely to consider which of the following as a possible


(A) The rate of mRNA degradation for one of the

proteins increases as this type of cell develops a

more specialized function.

(B) The two proteins are most likely constituents of a

complex substance supporting the cells’ specialized


(C) The cells are likely to proliferate abnormally and

possibly become cancerous due to the levels of these


(D) The mRNA’s for both proteins are being degraded

at a low rate in that type of cell.

(E) The mRNA’s for the two proteins are being

synthesized at identical rates in that type of cell.

Passage 37

Japanese firms have achieved the highest levels of

manufacturing efficiency in the world automobile

industry. Some observers of Japan have assumed that

Japanese firms use the same manufacturing equipment

(5) and techniques as United States firms but have bene-

fited from the unique characteristics of Japanese

employees and the Japanese culture. However, if this

were true, then one would expect Japanese auto plants

in the United States to perform no better than factories

(10) run by United States companies. This is not the case,

Japanese-run automobile plants located in the United

States and staffed by local workers have demonstrated

higher levels of productivity when compared with facto-

ries owned by United States companies.

(15) Other observers link high Japanese productivity to

higher levels of capital investment per worker. But a

historical perspective leads to a different conclusion.

When the two top Japanese automobile makers

matched and then doubled United States productivity

(20) levels in the mid-sixties, capital investment per

employee was comparable to that of United States

firms. Furthermore, by the late seventies, the amount of

fixed assets required to produce one vehicle was

roughly equivalent in Japan and in the United States.

(25) Since capital investment was not higher in Japan, it had

to be other factors that led to higher productivity.

A more fruitful explanation may lie with Japanese

production techniques. Japanese automobile producers

did not simply implement conventional processes more

(30) effectively: they made critical changes in United States

procedures. For instance, the mass-production philos-

ophy of United States automakers encouraged the

production of huge lots of cars in order to utilize fully

expensive, component-specific equipment and to

(35) occupy fully workers who have been trained to execute

one operation efficiently. Japanese automakers chose to

make small-lot production feasible by introducing

several departures from United States practices,

including the use of flexible equipment that could be

(40) altered easily to do several different production tasks

and the training of workers in multiple jobs.

Automakers could schedule the production of different

components or models on single machines, thereby

eliminating the need to store the buffer stocks of extra

(45) components that result when specialized equipment

and workers are kept constantly active.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present the major steps of a process

(B) clarify an ambiguity

(C) chronicle a dispute

(D) correct misconceptions

(E) defend an accepted approach

2. The author suggests that if the observers of Japan

mentioned in line 3 were correct, which of the following

would be the case?

(A) The equipment used in Japanese automobile plants

would be different from the equipment used in

United States plants.

(B) Japanese workers would be trained to do several

different production jobs.

(C) Culture would not have an influence on the

productivity levels of workers.

(D) The workers in Japanese-run plants would have

higher productivity levels regardless of where they

were located.

(E) The production levels of Japanese-run plants located

in the United States would be equal to those of

plants run by United States companies.

3. Which of the following statements concerning the

productivity levels of automakers can be inferred from

the passage?

(A) Prior to the 1960’s, the productivity levels of the top

Japanese automakers were exceeded by those of

United States automakers.

(B) The culture of a country has a large effect on the

productivity levels of its automakers.

(C) During the late 1970’s and early 1980’s,

productivity levels were comparable in Japan and

the United States.

(D) The greater the number of cars that are produced in

a single lot, the higher a plant’s productivity level.

(E) The amount of capital investment made by

automobile manufacturers in their factories

determines the level of productivity.

4. According to the passage, which of the following

statements is true of Japanese automobile workers?

(A) Their productivity levels did not equal those of

United States automobile workers until the late


(B) Their high efficiency levels are a direct result of

cultural influences.

(C) They operate component-specific machinery.

(D) They are trained to do more than one job.

(E) They produce larger lots of cars than do workers in

United States factories.

5. Which of the following best describes the organization

of the first paragraph?

(A) A thesis is presented and supporting examples are


(B) Opposing views are presented, classified, and then


(C) A fact is stated, and an explanation is advanced and

then refuted.

(D) A theory is proposed, considered, and then


(E) An opinion is presented, qualified, and then


6. It can be inferred from the passage that one problem

associated with the production of huge lots of cars is

which of the following?

(A) The need to manufacture flexible machinery and


(B) The need to store extra components not required for

immediate use

(C) The need for expensive training programs for

workers, which emphasize the development of

facility in several production jobs.

(D) The need to alter conventional mass-production


(E) The need to increase the investment per vehicle in

order to achieve high productivity levels

7. Which of the following statements is supported by

information stated in the passage?

(A) Japanese and United States automakers differ in

their approach to production processes.

(B) Japanese automakers have perfected the use of

single-function equipment.

(C) Japanese automakers invest more capital per

employee than do United States automakers.

(D) United States-owned factories abroad have higher

production levels than do Japanese owned plants in

the United States.

(E) Japanese automakers have benefited from the

cultural heritage of their workers.

8. With which of the following predictive statement

regarding Japanese automakers would the author

most likely agree?

(A) The efficiency levels of the Japanese automakers

will decline if they become less flexible in their

approach to production

(B) Japanese automakers productivity levels double

during the late 1990’s.

(C) United States automakes will originate net

production processes before Japanese automakers


(D) Japanese automakers will hire fewer workers than

will United States automakers because each worker

is required to perform several jobs.

(E) Japanese automakers will spend less on equipment

repairs than will United States automakers because

Japanese equipment can be easily altered.

Passage 38

It was once believed that the brain was independent

of metabolic processes occurring elsewhere in the body.

In recent studies, however, we have discovered that the

production and release in brain neurons of the neuro-

(5) transmitter serotonin (neurotransmitters are compounds

that neurons use to transmit signals to other cells)

depend directly on the food that the body processes.

Our first studies sought to determine whether the

increase in serotonin observed in rats given a large injec-

(10)tion of the amino acid tryptophan might also occur after

rats ate meals that change tryptophan levels in the

blood. We found that, immediately after the rats began

to eat, parallel elevations occurred in blood tryptophan,

brain tryptophan, and brain serotonin levels. These find-

(15) ings suggested that the production and release of sero-

tonin in brain neurons were normally coupled with

blood-tryptophan increases. In later studies we found

that injecting insulin into a rat’s bloodstream also caused

parallel elevations in blood and brain tryptophan levels

(20) and in serotonin levels. We then decided to see whether

the secretion of the animal’s own insulin similarly affected

serotonin production. We gave the rats a carbohydrate-

containing meal that we knew would elicit insulin secre-

tion. As we had hypothesized, the blood tryptophan

(25) level and the concentrations of tryptophan

serotonin in the brain increased after the meal.

Surprisingly, however, when we added a large

amount of protein to the meal, brain tryptophan and

serotonin levels fell. Since protein contains tryptophan,

(30) why should it depress brain tryptophan levels? The

answer lies in the mechanism that provides blood tryp-

tophan to the brain cells. This same mechanism also

provides the brain cells with other amino acids found in

protein, such as tyrosine and leucine. The consumption

(35) of protein increases blood concentration of the other

amino acids much more, proportionately, than it does

that of tryptophan. The more protein in the meal, the

lower is the ratio of the resulting blood-tryptophan

concentration to the concentration of competing amino

(40) acids, and the more slowly is tryptophan provided to

the brain. Thus the more protein in a meal, the less

serotonin subsequently produced and released.

1. Which of the following titles best summarizes the

contents of the passage?

(A) Neurotransmitters: Their Crucial Function in

Cellular Communication

(B) Diet and Survival: An Old Relationship Reexamined

(C) The Blood Supply and the Brain: A Reciprocal


(D) Amino Acids and Neurotransmitters: The

Connection Between Serotonin Levels and Tyrosine

(E) The Effects of Food Intake on the Production and

Release of Serotonin: Some Recent Findings

2. According to the passage, the speed with which

tryptophan is provided to the brain cells of a rat varies

with the

(A) amount of protein present in a meal

(B) concentration of serotonin in the brain before a meal

(C) concentration of leucine in the blood rather than on

the concentration of tyrosine in the blood after a


(D) concentration of tryptophan in the brain before a


(E) number of serotonin-containing neurons present in

the brain before a meal

3. According to the passage, when the authors began their

first studies, they were aware that

(A) they would eventually need to design experiments

that involved feeding rats high concentrations of


(B) tryptophan levels in the blood were difficult to

monitor with accuracy

(C) serotonin levels increased after rats were fed meals

rich in tryptophan

(D) there were many neurotransmitters whose

production was dependent on metabolic processes

elsewhere in the body.

(E) serotonin levels increased after rats were injected

with a large amount of tryptophan

4. According to the passage, one reason that the authors

gave rats carbohydrates was to

(A) depress the rats’ tryptophan levels

(B) prevent the rats from contracting diseases

(C) cause the rats to produce insulin

(D) demonstrate that insulin is the most important

substance secreted by the body

(E) compare the effect of carbohydrates with the effect

of proteins

5. According to the passage, the more protein a rat

consumes, the lower will be the

(A) ratio of the rat’s blood-tryptophan concentration to

the amount of serotonin produced and released in the

rat’s brain

(B) ratio of the rat’s blood-tryptophan concentration to

the concentration in its blood of the other amino

acids contained in the protein

(C) ratio of the rat’s blood-tyrosine concentration to its

blood-leucine concentration

(D) number of neurotransmitters of any kind that the rat

will produce and release

(E) number of amino acids the rat’s blood will contain

6. The authors’ discussion of the “mechanism that provides

blood tryptophan to the brain cells” (lines 31-32) is

meant to

(A) stimulate further research studies

(B) summarize an area of scientific investigation

(C) help explain why a particular research finding was


(D) provide supporting evidence for a controversial

scientific theory

(E) refute the conclusions of a previously mentioned

research study

7. According to the passage, an injection of insulin was

most similar in its effect on rats to an injection of

(A) tyrosine

(B) leucine

(C) blood

(D) tryptophan

(E) protein

8. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the

following would be LEAST likely to be a potential

source of aid to a patient who was not adequately

producing and releasing serotonin?

(A) Meals consisting almost exclusively of protein

(B) Meals consisting almost exclusively of


(C) Meals that would elicit insulin secretion

(D) Meals that had very low concentrations of tyrosine

(E) Meals that had very low concentrations of leucine

9. It can be inferred from the passage that the authors

initially held which of the following hypotheses about

what would happen when they fed large amounts of

protein to rats?

(A) The rats’ brain serotonin levels would not decrease.

(B) The rats’ brain tryptophan levels would decrease

(C) The rats’ tyrosine levels would increase less quickly

than would their leucine levels

(D) The rats would produce more insulin.

(E) The rats would produce neurotransmitters other than


Passage 39

Historians sometimes forget that history is conunu-

ally being made and experienced before it is studied,

interpreted, and read. These latter activities have their

own history, of course, which may impinge in unex-

(5) pected ways on public events. It is difficult to predict

when “new pasts” will overturn established historical

interpretations and change the course of history.

In the fall of 1954, for example, C. Vann Woodward

delivered a lecture series at the University of Virginia

(10) which challenged the prevailling dogma concerning the

history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation

in the South. He argued that the Jim Crow laws of the

late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries not only

codified traditional practice but also were a determined

(15) effort to erase the considerable progress made by Black

people during and after Reconstruction in the 1870’s.

This revisionist view of Jim Crow legislation grew in

Part from the research that Woodward had done for the

NAACP legal campaign during its preparation for

(20) Brown v. Board of Education. The Supreme Court had

issued its ruling in this epochal desegregation case a few

months before Woodward’s lectures.

The lectures were soon published as a book. The

Strange Career of Jim Crow. Ten years later, in a

(25) preface to the second revised edition. Woodward

confessed with ironic modesty that the first edition

“had begun to suffer under some of the handicaps that

might be expected in a history of the American Revolu-

tion published in 1776.” That was a bit like hearing

(30)Thomas Paine apologize for the timing of his pamphlet

Common Sense, which had a comparable impact.

Although Common Sense also had a mass readership.

Paine had intended to reach and inspire: he was not a

historian, and thus not concerned with accuracy or the

(35) dangers of historical anachronism. Yet, like Paine,

Woodward had an unerring sense of the revolutionary

moment, and of how historical evidence could under-

mine the mythological tradition that was crushing the

dreams of new social possibilities. Martin Luther King,

(40) Jr.. testified to the profound effect of The Strange

Career of Jim Crow on the civil rights movement by

praising the book and quoting it frequently.

1. The “new pasts” mentioned in line 6 can best be

described as the

(A) occurrence of events extremely similar to past


(B) history of the activities of studying, interpreting, and

reading new historical writing

(C) change in people’s understanding of the past due to

more recent historical writing

(D) overturning of established historical interpretations

by politically motivated politicians

(E) difficulty of predicting when a given historical

interpretation will be overturned

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the “prevailling

dogma” (line 10) held that

(A) Jim Crow laws were passed to give legal status to

well-established discriminatory practices in the


(B) Jim Crow laws were passed to establish order and

uniformity in the discriminatory practices of

different southern states.

(C) Jim Crow laws were passed to erase the social gains

that Black people had achieved since Reconstruction

(D) the continuity of racial segregation in the South was

disrupted by passage of Jim Crow laws

(E) the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early

twentieth centuries were passed to reverse the effect

of earlier Jim Crow laws

3. Which of the following is the best example of writing

that is likely to be subject to the kinds of “handicaps”

referred to in line 27?

(A) A history of an auto manufacturing plant written by an employee during an autobuying boom

(B) A critique of a statewide school-desegregation plan

written by an elementary school teacher in that state

(C) A newspaper article assessing the historical

importance of a United States President written

shortly after the President has taken office

(D) A scientific paper describing the benefits of a

certain surgical technique written by the surgeon

who developed the technique

(E) Diary entries narrating the events of a battle written

by a soldier who participated in the battle

4. The passage suggests that C. Vann Woodward and

Thomas Paine were similar in all of the following ways


(A) Both had works published in the midst of important

historical events.

(B) Both wrote works that enjoyed widespread


(C) Both exhibited an understanding of the relevance of

historical evidence to contemporary issues.

(D) The works of both had a significant effect on events

following their publication.

(E) Both were able to set aside worries about historical

anachronism in order to reach and inspire.

5. The attitude of the author of the passage toward the

work of C. Vann Woodward is best described as one of

(A) respectful regard

(B) qualified approbation

(C) implied skepticism

(D) pointed criticism

(E) fervent advocacy

6. Which of the following best describes the new idea

expressed by C. Vann Woodward in his University of

Virginia lectures in 1954?

(A) Southern racial segregation was continuous and


(B) Black people made considerable progress only after


(C) Jim Crow legislation was conventional in nature.

(D) Jim Crow laws did not go as far in codifying

traditional practice as they might have.

(E) Jim Crow laws did much more than merely reinforce

a tradition of segregation.

Passage 40

Joseph Glarthaar’s Forged in Battle is not the first excel-

lent study of Black soldiers and their White officers in the

Civil War, but it uses more soldiers’ letters and diaries—

including rare material from Black soldiers—and concen-

(5) rates more intensely on Black-White relations in Black

regiments than do any of its predecessors. Glathaar’s title

expresses his thesis: loyalty, friendship, and respect among

White officers and Black soldiers were fostered by the

mutual dangers they faced in combat.

(10 ) Glarthaar accurately describes the government’s discrim-

inatory treatment of Black soldiers in pay, promotion, medi

cal care, and job assignments, appropriately emphasizing

the campaign by Black soldiers and their officers to get the

opportunity to fight. That chance remained limited through

(15) out the war by army policies that kept most Black units

serving in rear-echelon assignments and working in labor

battalions. Thus, while their combat death rate was only

one-third that of White units, their mortality rate from

disease, a major killer in his war, was twice as great.

(20) Despite these obstacles, the courage and effectiveness of

several Black units in combat won increasing respect from

initially skeptical or hostile White soldiers. As one White

officer put it, “they have fought their way into the respect

of all the army.”

(25) In trying to demonstrate the magnitude of this attitudi-

nal change, however, Glarthaar seems to exaggerate the

prewar racism of the White men who became officers in

Black regiments. “Prior to the war,” he writes of these

men, “virtually all of them held powerful racial prejudices.”

(30) While perhaps true of those officers who joined Black

units for promotion or other self-serving motives, this state-

ment misrepresents the attitudes of the many abolitionists

who became officers in Black regiments. Having spent

years fighting against the race prejudice endemic in Ameri-

(35) can society; they participated eagerly in this military exper-

iment, which they hoped would help African Americans

achieve freedom and postwar civil equality. By current

standards of racial egalitarianism, these men’s paternalism

toward African Americans was racist. But to call their

(40) feelings “powerful racial prejudices” is to indulge in

generational chauvinism—to judge past eras by present


1. The passage as a whole can best be characterized as which of

the following?

(A) An evaluation of a scholarly study

(B) A description of an attitudinal change

(C) A discussion of an analytical defect

(D) An analysis of the causes of a phenomenon

(E) An argument in favor of revising a view

2. According to the author, which of the following is true of

Glarthaar’s Forged in Battle compared with previous studies

on the same topic?

(A) It is more reliable and presents a more complete picture

of the historical events on which it concentrates than do

previous studies.

(B) It uses more of a particular kind of source material and

focuses more closely on a particular aspect of the topic

than do previous studies.

(C) It contains some unsupported generalizations, but it

rightly emphasizes a theme ignored by most previous


(D) It surpasses previous studies on the same topic in that it

accurately describes conditions often neglected by those


(E) It makes skillful use of supporting evidence to illustrate a

subtle trend that previous studies have failed to detect.

3. The author implies that the title of Glatthaar’s book refers

specifically to which of the following?

(A) The sense of pride and accomplishment that Black

soldiers increasingly felt as a result of their Civil War


(B) The civil equality that African Americans achieved after

the Civil War, partly as a result of their use of

organizational skills honed by combat

(C) The changes in discriminatory army policies that were

made as a direct result of the performance of Black

combat units during the Civil War

(D) The improved interracial relations that were formed by

the races’ facing of common dangers and their waging

of a common fight during the Civil War

(E) The standards of racial egalitarianism that came to be

adopted as a result of White Civil War veterans’

repudiation of the previous racism

4. The passage mentions which of the following as an

important theme that receives special emphasis in

Glarthaar’s book?

(A) The attitudes of abolitionist officers in Black units

(B) The struggle of Black units to get combat assignments

(C) The consequences of the poor medical care received by

Black soldiers

(D) The motives of officers serving in Black units

(E) The discrimination that Black soldiers faced when trying

for promotions

5. The passage suggests that which of the following was true of

Black units’ disease mortality rates in the Civil War?

(A) They were almost as high as the combat mortality rates

of White units.

(B) They resulted in part from the relative inexperience of

these units when in combat.

(C) They were especially high because of the nature of these

units’ usual duty assignments.

(D) They resulted in extremely high overall casualty rates in

Black combat units.

(E) They exacerbated the morale problems that were caused

by the army’s discriminatory policies.

6. The author of the passage quotes the White officer in lines

23-24 primarily in order to provide evidence to support the

contention that

(A) virtually all White officers initially had hostile attitudes

toward Black soldiers

(B) Black soldiers were often forced to defend themselves

from physical attacks initiated by soldiers from White


(C) the combat performance of Black units changed the

attitudes of White soldiers toward Black soldiers

(D) White units paid especially careful attention to the

performance of Black units in battle

(E) respect in the army as a whole was accorded only to

those units, whether Black or White, that performed well

in battle

7. Which of the following best describes the kind of error

attributed to Glarthaar in lines 25-28?

(A) Insisting on an unwarranted distinction between two

groups of individuals in order to render an argument

concerning them internally consistent

(B) Supporting an argument in favor of a given interpretation

of a situation with evidence that is not particularly

relevant to the situation

(C) Presenting a distorted view of the motives of certain

individuals in order to provide grounds for a negative

evaluation of their actions

(D) Describing the conditions prevailing before a given

event in such a way that the contrast with those

prevailing after the event appears more striking than it

actually is

(E) Asserting that a given event is caused by another event

merely because the other event occurred before the given

event occurred

8. Which of the following actions can best be described as

indulging in “generational chauvinism” (lines 40-41) as that

practice is defined in the passage?

(A) Condemning a present-day monarch merely because

many monarchs have been tyrannical in the past.

(B) Clinging to the formal standards of politeness common

in one’s youth to such a degree that any relaxation of

those standards is intolerable

(C) Questioning the accuracy of a report written by an

employee merely because of the employee’s gender.

(D) Deriding the superstitions accepted as “science” in past

eras without acknowledging the prevalence of irrational

beliefs today.

(E) Labeling a nineteenth-century politician as “corrupt”

for engaging in once-acceptable practices considered

intolerable today.

Passage 41

It was once assumed that all living things could be

divided into two fundamental and exhaustive categories. Multicellular plants and animals, as well as many unicellu-

lar organisms, are eukaryotic—their large, complex cells

(5) have a well-formed nucles and many organelles. On the

other hand, the true bacteria are prokaryotic cell, which

are simple and lack a nucleus. The distinction between

eukaryotes and bacteria, initially defined in terms of

subcellular structures visible with a microscope, was ulti-

(10) mately carried to the molecular level. Here prokaryotic and

eukaryotic cells have many features in common. For

instance, they translate genetic information into proteins

according to the same type of genetic coding. But even

where the molecular processes are the same, the details in

(15) the two forms are different and characteristic of the respec-

tive forms. For example, the amino acid sequences of vari-

ous enzymes tend to be typically prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

The differences between the groups and the similarities

within each group made it seem certain to most biologists

(20) that the tree of life had only two stems. Moreover, argu-

ments pointing out the extent of both structural and func-

tional differences between eukaryotes and true bacteria

convinced many biologists that the precursors of the

eukaryotes must have diverged from the common

(25) ancestor before the bacteria arose.

Although much of this picture has been sustained by

more recent research, it seems fundamentally wrong in one

respect. Among the bacteria, there are organisms that are

significantly different both from the cells of eukaryotes and

(30) from the true bacteria, and it now appears that there are

three stems in the tree of life. New techniques for deter-

mining the molecular sequence of the RNA of organisms

have produced evolutionary information about the degree

to which organisms are related, the time since they diverged

(35) from a common ancestor, and the reconstruction of ances-

tral versions of genes. These techniques have strongly

suggested that although the true bacteria indeed form a

large coherent group, certain other bacteria, the archaebac-

teria, which are also prokaryotes and which resemble true

(40) bacteria, represent a distinct evolutionary branch that

far antedates the common ancestor of all true bacteria.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) detailing the evidence that has led most biologists to

replace the trichotomous picture of living organisms

with a dichotomous one

(B) outlining the factors that have contributed to the

current hypothesis concerning the number of basic

categories of living organisms

(C) evaluating experiments that have resulted in proof

that the prokaryotes are more ancient than had been


(D) summarizing the differences in structure and

function found among true bacteria, archaebacteria,

and eukaryotes

(E) formulating a hypothesis about the mechanisms of

evolution that resulted in the ancestors of the


2. According to the passage, investigations of eukaryotic

and prokaryotic cells at the molecular level supported

the conclusion that

(A) most eukaryotic organisms are unicellular

(B) complex cells have well-formed nuclei

(C) prokaryotes and cukaryotes form two fundamental


(D) subcellular structures are visible with a microscope

(E) prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have similar


3. According to the passage, which of the following

statements about the two-category hypothesis is likely to

be true?

(A) It is promising because it explains the presence of true

bacteria-like organisms such as organelles in

eukaryotic cells.

(B) It is promising because it explains why eukaryotic

cells, unlike prokaryotic cells, tend to form

multicellular organisms.

(C) It is flawed because it fails to account for the great

variety among eukaryotic organisms.

(D) It is flawed because it fails to account for the

similarity between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

(E) It is flawed because it fails to recognize an important

distinction among prokaryotes.

4. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the

following have recently been compared in order to

clarify the fundamental classifications of living things?

(A) The genetic coding in true bacteria and that in other


(B) The organelle structures of archaebacteria, true

bacteria, and eukaryotes

(C) The cellular structures of multicellular organisms

and unicellular organisms

(D) The molecular sequences in eukaryotic RNA, true

bacterial RNA, and archaebacterial RNA

(E) The amino acid sequences in enzymes of various

eukaryotic species and those of enzymes in

archaebecterial species

5. If the “new techniques” mentioned in line 31 were

applied in studies of biological classifications other than

bacteria, which of the following is most likely?

(A) Some of those classifications will have to be


(B) Many species of bacteria will be reclassified

(C) It will be determined that there are four main

categories of living things rather than three.

(D) It will be found that true bacteria are much older

than eukaryotes.

(E) It will be found that there is a common ancestor of

the eukaryotes, archaebacteria, and true bacteria.

6. According to the passage, researchers working under the

two-category hypothesis were correct in thinking that

(A) prokaryotes form a coherent group

(B) the common ancestor of all living things had complex


(C) eukaryotes are fundamentally different from true bacteria

(D) true bacteria are just as complex as eukaryotes

(E) ancestral versions of eukaryotic genes functioned

differently from their modern counterparts.

7. All of the following statements are supported by the passage


(A) True bacteria form a distinct evolutionary group.

(B) Archaebacteria are prokaryotes that resemble true


(C) True bacteria and eukaryotes employ similar types of

genetic coding.

(D) True bacteria and eukaryotes are distinguishable at the

subcellular level.

(E) Amino acid sequences of enzymes are uniform for

eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms.

8. The author’s attitude toward the view that living things are

divided into three categories is best described as one of

(A) tentative acceptance

(B) mild skepticism

(C) limited denial

(D) studious oriticism

(E) whole hearted endorsement

Passage 42

Excess inventory, a massive problem for many busi-

nesses, has several causes, some of which are unavoidable.

Overstocks may accumulate through production overruns or

errors. Certain styles and colors prove unpopular. With

(5) some products—computers and software, toys, and

books—last year’s models are difficult to move even at

huge discounts. Occasionally the competition introduces a

better product. But in many cases the public’s buying tastes

simply change, leaving a manufacturer or distributor with

(10 ) thousands (or millions) of items that the fickle public no

longer wants.

One common way to dispose of this merchandise is to

sell it to a liquidator, who buys as cheaply as possible and

then resells the merchandise through catalogs, discount

(15) stores, and other outlets. However, liquidators may pay less

for the merchandise than it cost to make it. Another way to

dispose of excess inventory is to dump it. The corporation

takes a straight cost write-off on its taxes and hauls the

merchandise to a landfill. Although it is hard to believe,

(20) there is a sort of convoluted logic to this approach. It is

perfectly legal, requires little time or preparation on the

company’s part, and solves the problem quickly. The draw-

back is the remote possibility of getting caught by the news

media. Dumping perfectly useful products can turn into a

(25) public relations nightmare. Children living in poverty are

freezing and XYZ Company has just sent 500 new snow-

suits to the local dump. Parents of young children are

barely getting by and QPS Company dumps 1,000 cases of

disposable diapers because they have slight imperfections.

(30) The managers of these companies are not deliberately

wasteful; they are simply unaware of all their alternatives.

In 1976 the Internal Revenue Service provided a tangible

incentive for businesses to contribute their products to char-

ity. The new tax law allowed corporations to deduct the

(35)cost of the product donated plus half the difference

between cost and fair market selling price, with the proviso

that deductions cannot exceed twice cost. Thus, the federal

government sanctions—indeed, encourages—an above-cost

federal tax deduction for companies that donate inventory

to charity.

1. The author mentions each of the following as a cause of

excess inventory EXCEPT

(A) production of too much merchandise

(B) inaccurate forecasting of buyers’ preferences

(C) unrealistic pricing policies

(D) products’ rapid obsolescence

(E) availability of a better product

2. The passage suggests that which of the following is a

kind of product that a liquidator who sells to discount

stores would be unlikely to wish to acquire?

(A) Furniture

(B) Computers

(C) Kitchen equipment

(D) Baby-care products

(E) Children’s clothing

3. The passage provides information that supports which of

the following statements?

(A) Excess inventory results most often from

insufficient market analysis by the manufacturer.

(B) Products with slight manufacturing defects may

contribute to excess inventory.

(C) Few manufacturers have taken advantage of the

changes in the federal tax laws.

(D) Manufacturers who dump their excess inventory are

often caught and exposed by the news media.

(E) Most products available in discount stores have

come from manufacturers’ excess-inventory stock.

4. The author cites the examples in lines 25-29 most probably in order to illustrate

(A) the fiscal irresponsibility of dumping as a policy for

dealing with excess inventory

(B) the waste-management problems that dumping new

products creates

(C) the advantages to the manufacturer of dumping as a


(D) alternatives to dumping explored by different


(E) how the news media could portray dumping to the

detriment of the manufacturer’s reputation

5. By asserting that manufacturers “are simply unaware”

(line 31), the author suggests which of the following?

(A) Manufacturers might donate excess inventory to charity rather than dump it if they knew about the provision in the federal tax code.

(B) The federal government has failed to provide

sufficient encouragement to manufacturers to make

use of advantageous tax policies.

(C) Manufacturers who choose to dump excess

inventory are not aware of the possible effects on

their reputation of media coverage of such dumping.

(D) The manufacturers of products disposed of by

dumping are unaware of the needs of those people

who would find the products useful.

(E) The manufacturers who dump their excess inventory

are not familiar with the employment of liquidators

to dispose of overstock.

6. The information in the passage suggests that which of

the following, if true, would make donating excess inv

entory to charity less attractive to manufacturers than


(A) The costs of getting the inventory to the charitable

destination are greater than the above-cost tax


(B) The news media give manufacturers’ charitable

contributions the same amount of coverage that they

give dumping.

(C) No straight-cost tax benefit can be claimed for items

that are dumped.

(D) The fair-market value of an item in excess inventory

is 1.5 times its cost.

(E) Items end up as excess inventory because of a

change in the public’s preferences.

7. Information in the passage suggests that one reason

manufacturers might take advantage of the tax provision

mentioned in the last paragraph is that

(A) there are many kinds of products that cannot be

legally dumped in a landfill

(B) liquidators often refuse to handle products with

slight imperfections

(C) the law allows a deduction in excess of the cost of

manufacturing the product

(D) media coverage of contributions of excess-inventory

products to charity is widespread and favorable

(E) no tax deduction is available for products dumped or

sold to a liquidator

Passage 43

Historians of women’s labor in the United States at first

largely disregarded the story of female service workers

-women earning wages in occupations such as salesclerk.

domestic servant, and office secretary. These historians

(5) focused instead on factory work, primarily because it

seemed so different from traditional, unpaid “women’s

work” in the home, and because the underlying economic

forces of industrialism were presumed to be gender-blind

and hence emancipatory in effect. Unfortunately, emanci-

(10) pation has been less profound than expected, for not even

industrial wage labor has escaped continued sex segre-

gation in the workplace.

To explain this unfinished revolution in the status of

women, historians have recently begun to emphasize the

( 15) way a prevailing definition of femininity often etermines

the kinds of work allocated to women, even when such

allocation is inappropriate to new conditions. For instance,

early textile-mill entrepreneurs, in justifying women’s

employment in wage labor, made much of the assumption

(20) that women were by nature skillful at detailed tasks and

patient in carrying out repetitive chores; the mill owners

thus imported into the new industrial order hoary stereo-

types associated with the homemaking activities they

presumed to have been the purview of women. Because

(25) women accepted the more unattractive new industrial tasks

more readily than did men, such jobs came to be regarded

as female jobs. And employers, who assumed that women’s

“real” aspirations were for marriage and family life.

declined to pay women wages commensurate with those of

(30) men. Thus many lower-skilled, lower-paid, less secure jobs

came to be perceived as “female.”

More remarkable than the origin has been the persistence

of such sex segregation in twentieth-century industry. Once

an occupation came to be perceived as “female.” employers

(35) showed surprisingly little interest in changing that

perception, even when higher profits beckoned. And despite

the urgent need of the United States during the Second

World War to mobilize its human resources fully, job

segregation by sex characterized even the most important

40) war industries. Moreover, once the war ended, employers

quickly returned to men most of the “male” jobs that

women had been permitted to master.

1. According to the passage, job segregation by sex in the

United States was

(A) greatly diminlated by labor mobilization during the

Second World War

(B) perpetuated by those textile-mill owners who argued

in favor of women’s employment in wage labor

(C) one means by which women achieved greater job


(D) reluctantly challenged by employers except when

the economic advantages were obvious

(E) a constant source of labor unrest in the young textile


2. According to the passage, historians of women’s labor

focused on factory work as a more promising area of

research than service-sector work because factory work

(A) involved the payment of higher wages

(B) required skill in detailed tasks

(C) was assumed to be less characterized by sex


(D) was more readily accepted by women than by men

(E) fitted the economic dynamic of industrialism better

3. It can be inferred from the passage that early historians

of women’s labor in the United States paid little

attention to women’s employment in the service sector

of the economy because

(A) the extreme variety of these occupations made it

very difficult to assemble meaningful statistics about


(B) fewer women found employment in the service

sector than in factory work

(C) the wages paid to workers in the service sector were

much lower than those paid in the industrial sector

(D) women’s employment in the service sector tended to

be much more short-term than in factory work

(E) employment in the service sector seemed to have

much in common with the unpaid work associated

with homemaking

4. The passage supports which of the following statements

about the early mill owners mentioned in the second


(A) They hoped that by creating relatively unattractive

“female” jobs they would discourage women from

losing interest in marriage and family life.

(B) They sought to increase the size of the available

labor force as a means to keep men’s to keep men’s

wages low.

(C) They argued that women were inherently suited to

do well in particular kinds of factory work.

(D) They thought that factory work bettered the

condition of women by emancipating them from

dependence on income earned by men.

(E) They felt guilty about disturbing the traditional

division of labor in family.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the “unfinished

revolution” the author mentions in line 13 refers to


(A) entry of women into the industrial labor market

(B) recognition that work done by women as

homemakers should be compensated at rates

comparable to those prevailing in the service sector

of the economy

(C) development of a new definition of femininity

unrelated to the economic forces of industrialism

(D) introduction of equal pay for equal work in all


(E) emancipation of women wage earners from gender-

determined job allocation

6. The passage supports which of the following statements

about hiring policies in the United States?

(A) After a crisis many formerly “male” jobs are

reclassified as “female” jobs.

(B) Industrial employers generally prefer to hire women

with previous experience as homemakers.

(C) Post-Second World War hiring policies caused

women to lose many of their wartime gains in

employment opportunity.

(D) Even war industries during the Second World War

were reluctant to hire women for factory work.

(E) The service sector of the economy has proved more

nearly gender-blind in its hiring policies than has the

manufacturing sector.

7. Which of the following words best expresses the opinion

of the author of the passage concerning the notion that

women are more skillful than men in carrying out

detailed tasks?

(A) “patient” (line 21)

(B) “repetitive” (line 21)

(C) “hoary” (line 22)

(D) “homemaking” (line 23)

(E) “purview” (line 24)

8. Which of the following best describes the relationship of

the final paragraph to the passage as a whole?
(A) The central idea is reinforced by the citation of

evidence drawn from twentieth-century history.

(B) The central idea is restated in such a way as to form

a transition to a new topic for discussion.

(C) The central idea is restated and juxtaposed with

evidence that might appear to contradic it.

(D) A partial exception to the generalizations of the

central idea is dismissed as unimportant.

(E) Recent history is cited to suggest that the central

idea’s validity is gradually diminishing.

Passage 44

According to a recent theory, Archean-age gold-quartz

vein systems were formed over two billion years ago from

magmatic fluids that originated from molten granitelike

bodies deep beneath the surface of the Earth. This theory is

(5) contrary to the widely held view that the systems were

deposited from metamorphic fluids, that is, from fluids that

formed during the dehydration of wet sedimentary rocks.

he recently developed theory has considerable practical

importance. Most of the gold deposits discovered during

(10) the original gold rushes were exposed at the Earth’s surface

and were found because they had shed trails of alluvial

gold that were easily traced by simple prospecting methods.

Although these same methods still lead to an occasional

discovery, most deposits not yet discovered have gone

(15) undetected because they are buried and have no surface


The challenge in exploration is therefore to unravel the

subsurface geology of an area and pinpoint the position of

buried minerals. Methods widely used today include

(20) analysis of aerial images that yield a broad geological

overview; geophysical techniques that provide data on the

magnetic, electrical, and mineralogical properties of the

rocks being investigated; and sensitive chemical tests that

are able to detect the subtle chemical halos that often

(25) envelop mineralization. However, none of these high-

technology methods are of any value if the sites to which

they are applied have never mineralized, and to maximize

the chances of discovery the explorer must therefore pay

particular attention to selecting the ground formations most

(30) likely to be mineralized. Such ground selection relies to

varying degrees on conceptual models, which take into

account theoretical studies of relevant factors.

These models are constructed primarily from empirical

observations of known mineral deposits and from theories

35) of ore-forming processes. The explorer uses the models to

identify those geological features that are critical to the

formation of the mineralization being modeled, and then

tries to select areas for exploration that exhibit as many of

the critical features as possible.

1. The author is primarily concerned with

(A) advocating a return to an older methodology

(B) explaining the importance of a recent theory

(C) enumerating differences between two widely used


(D) describing events leading to a discovery

(E) challenging the assumptions on which a theory is


2. According to the passage, the widely held view of

Archean- age gold-quartz vein systems is that such


(A) were formed from metamorphic fluids

(B) originated in molten granitelike bodies

(C) were formed from alluvial deposits

(D) generally have surface expression

(E) are not discoverable through chemical tests

3. The passage implies that which of the following steps

would be the first performed by explorers who wish to

maximize their chances of discovering gold?

(A) Surveying several sites known to have been formed

more than two billion years ago

(B) Limiting exploration to sites known to have been

formed from metamorphic fluid.

(C) Using an appropriate conceptual model to select a

site for further exploration

(D) Using geophysical methods to analyze rocks over a

broad area

(E) Limiting exploration to sites where alluvial gold has

previously been found

4. Which of the following statements about discoveries of

gold deposits is supported by information in the


(A) The number of gold discoveries made annually has

increased between the time of the original gold rushes

and the present.

(B) New discoveries of gold deposits are likely to be the

result of exploration techniques designed to locate

buried mineralization.

(C) It is unlikely that newly discovered gold deposits will

ever yield as much as did those deposits discovered

during the original gold rushes.

(D) Modern explorers are divided on the question of the

utility of simple prospecting methods as a source of

new discoveries of gold deposits.

(E) Models based on the theory that gold originated

from magmatic fluids have already led to new

discoveries of gold deposits.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the

following is easiest to detect?

(A) A gold-quartz vein system originating in magmatic


(B) A gold-quartz vein system originating in

meamorphic fluids

(C) A gold deposit that is mixed with granite

(D) A gold deposit that has shed alluvial gold

(E) A gold deposit that exhibits chemical halos

6. The theory mentioned in line 1 relates to the conceptual

models discussed in the passage in which of the

following ways?

(A) It may furnish a valid account of ore-forming

processes, and, hence, can support conceptual

models that have great practical significance.

(B) It suggests that certain geological formations, long

believed to be mineralized, are in fact

mineralized, thus confirming current conceptual


(C) It suggests that there may not be enough similarity

across Archean-age gold-quartz vein systems to

warrant the formulation of conceptual models.

(D) It corrects existing theories about the chemical

halos of gold deposits, and thus provides a

basis for correcting current conceptual models.

(E) It suggests that simple prospecting methods

still have a higher success rate in the discovery

of gold deposits than do more modern methods.

7. According to the passage, methods of exploring for gold

that are widely used today are based on which of the

following facts?

(A) Most of the Earth’s remaining gold deposits are still


(B) Most of the Earth’s remaining gold deposits are

exposed at the surface.

(C) Most of the Earth’s remaining gold deposits are

buried and have no surface expression.

(D) Only one type of gold deposit warrants exploration,

since the other types of gold deposits are found in

regions difficult to reach.

(E) Only one type of gold deposit warrants exploration,

since the other types of gold deposits are unlikely to

yield concentrated quantities of gold.

8. It can be inferred from the passage that the efficiency of

model-based gold exploration depends on which of the

Ⅰ. The closeness of the match between the geological

features identified by the model as critical and the

actual geological features of a given area

Ⅱ. The degree to which the model chosen relies on

empirical observation of known mineral deposits

rather than on theories of ore-forming processes

Ⅲ. The degree to which the model chosen is based on

an accurate description of the events leading to


(A) Ⅰonly

(B) Ⅱ only

(C) Ⅰand Ⅱ only

(D) Ⅰ and Ⅲ only

(E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ

Passage 45

While there is no blueprint for transforming a largely

government-controlled economy into a free one, the

experience of the United Kingdom since 1979 clearly

shows one approach that works: privatization, in which

(5) state-owned industries are sold to private companies. By

1979, the total borrowings and losses of state-owned

industries were running at about t3 billion a year. By

selling many of these industries, the government has

decreased these borrowings and losses, gained over t34

(10) billion from the sales, and now receives tax revenues from

the newly privatized companies. Along with a dramatically

improved overall economy, the government has been able

to repay 12.5 percent of the net national debt over a

two-year period.

(15) In fact, privatization has not only rescued individual

industries and a whole economy headed for disaster, but

has also raised the level of performance in every area. At

British Airways and British Gas, for example, productivity

per employee has risen by 20 percent. At associated

(20) British Ports, labor disruptions common in the 1970’s and

early 1980’s have now virtually disappeared. At British

Telecom, there is no longer a waiting list—as there always

was before privatization—to have a telephone installed.

Part of this improved productivity has come about

(25) because the employees of privatized industries were given

the opportunity to buy shares in their own companies. They

responded enthusiastically to the offer of shares; at British

Aerospace, 89 percent of the eligible work force bought

shares; at Associated British Ports, 90 percent; and at

(30) British Telecom, 92 percent. When people have a personal

stake in something, they think about it, care about it, work

to make it prosper. At the National Freight Consortium,

the new employee-owners grew so concerned about their

company’s profits that during wage negotiations they

(35) actually pressed their union to lower its wage demands.

Some economists have suggested that giving away free

shares would provide a needed acceleration of the privati-

zation process. Yet they miss Thomas Paine’s point that

“what we obtain too cheap we esteem too lightly.” In

(40) order for the far-ranging benefits of individual ownership

to be achieved by owners, companies, and countries,

employees and other individuals must make their own

decisions to buy, and they must commit some of their own

resources to the choice.

1. According to the passage, all of the following were

benefits of privatizing state-owned industries in the

United Kingdom EXCEPT:

(A) Privatized industries paid taxes to the government.

(B) The government gained revenue from selling state-

owned industries.

(C) The government repaid some of its national debt.

(D) Profits from industries that were still state-owned


(E) Total borrowings and losses of state-owned

industries decreased.

2. According to the passage, which of the following

resulted in increased productivity in companies that

have been privatized?

(A) A large number of employees chose to purchase

shares in their companies.

(B) Free shares were widely distributed to individual


(C) The government ceased to regulate major industries.

(D) Unions conducted wage negotiations for employees.

(E) Employee-owners agreed to have their wages


3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author

considers labor disruptions to be

(A) an inevitable problem in a weak national economy

(B) a positive sign of employee concern about a


(C) a predictor of employee reactions to a company’s

offer to sell shares to them

(D) a phenomenon found more often in state-owned

industries than in private companies

(E) a deterrence to high performance levels in an


4. The passage supports which of the following statements

about employees buying shares in their own companies?

(A) At three different companies, approximately nine

out of ten of the workers were eligible to buy

shares in their companies.

(B) Approximately 90% of the ellgible workers at three

different companies chose o buy shares in their


(C) The opportunity to buy shares was discouraged by at

least some labor unions.

(D) Companies that demonstrated the highest

productivity were the first to allow their employees

the opportunity to buy shares.

(E) Eligibility to buy shares was contingent on

employees’ agreeing to increased work loads.

5. Which of the following statements is most consistent

with the principle described in lines 30-32?

(A) A democratic government that decides it is

inappropriate to own a particular industry has in no

way abdicated its responsibilities as guardian of the

public interest.

(B) The ideal way for a government to protect employee

interests is to force companies to maintain their

share of a competitive market without government


(C) The failure to harness the power of self-interest is an

important reason that state-owned industries perform


(D) Governments that want to implement privatization

programs must try to eliminate all resistance to the

free-market system.

(E) The individual shareholder will reap only a minute

share of the gains from whatever sacrifices he or she

makes to achieve these gains.

6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage

about the privatization process in the United Kingdom?

(A) It depends to a potentially dangerous degree on

individual ownership of shares.

(B) It conforms in its most general outlines to Thomas

Palne’s prescription for business ownership.

(C) It was originally conceived to include some giving

away of free shares.

(D) It has been successful, even though privatization has

failed in other countries.

(E) It is taking place more slowly than some economists

suggest is necessary.

7. The quotation in line 39 is most probably used to

(A) counter a position that the author of the passage

believes is incorrect

(B) state a solution to a problem described in the

previous sentence

(C) show how opponents of the viewpoint of the author

of the passage have supported their arguments

(D) point out a paradox contained in a controversial


(E) present a historical maxim to challenge the principle

introduced in the third paragraph

Passage 46

As the economic role of multinational, global corpora-

tions expands, the international economic environment will

be shaped increasingly not by governments or international

institutions, but by the interaction between governments

(5) and global corporations, especially in the United States,

Europe, and Japan. A significant factor in this shifting

world economy is the trend toward regional trading biocs

of nations, which has a potentially large effect on the

evolution of the world trading system. Two examples of

(10) this trend are the United States-Canada Free Trade

Agreement (FTA) and Europe 1992, the move by the

European Community (EC) to dismantle impediments to

the free flow of goods, services, capital, and labor among

member states by the end of 1992. However, although

(15) numerous political and economic factors were operative in

launching the move to integrate the EC’s markets, concern

about protectionism within the EC does not appear to have

been a major consideration. This is in sharp contrast to the

FTA, the overwhelming reason for that bilateral initiative

(20) was fear of increasing United States protectionism. None-

theless, although markedly different in origin and nature,

both regional developments are highly significant in that

they will foster integration in the two largest and richest

markets of the world, as well as provoke questions

(25) about the future direction of the world trading system.

1. The primary purpose of the passage as a whole is to

(A) describe an initiative and propose its continuance

(B) chronicle a development and illustrate its


(C) identify a trend and suggest its importance

(D) summarize a process and question its significance

(E) report a phenomenon and outline its probable future

2. According to the passage, all of the following are

elements of the shifting world economy EXCEPT

(A) an alteration in the role played by governments

(B) an increase in interaction between national

governments and international regulatory institutions

(C) an increase in the formation of multinational trading


(D) an increase in integration in the two richest markets

of the world

(E) a fear of increasing United States protectionism

3. The passage suggests which of the following about

global corporations?

(A) Their continued growth depends on the existence of

a fully integrated international market.

(B) Their potential effect on the world market is a matter

of ongoing concern to international institutions.

(C) They will have to assume quasi-governmental

functions if current economic trends continue.

(D) They have provided a model of economic success

for regional trading blocs.

(E) Their influence on world economics will continue to


4. According to the passage, one similarity between the

FTA and Europe 1992 is that they both

(A) overcame concerns about the role of politics in the

shifting world economy

(B) originated out of concern over unfair trade practices

by other nations

(C) exemplify a trend toward regionalization of

commercial markets.

(D) place the economic needs of the trading bloc ahead

of those of the member nations

(E) help to ensure the continued economic viability of

the world community

5. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage

about the European Community prior to the adoption of

the Europe 1992 program?

(A) There were restrictions on commerce between the

member nations.

(B) The economic policies of the member nations

focused on global trading issues.

(C) There were few impediments to trade between the

member nations and the United States.

(D) The flow of goods between the member nations and

Canada was insignificant.

(E) Relations between multinational corporations and

the governments of the member nations were


6. The author discusses the FTA and Europe 1992 most

likely in order to

(A) point out the similarities between two seemingly

disparate trading alliances

(B) illustrate how different economic motivations

produce different types of trading blocs

(C) provide contrasting examples of a trend that is

influencing the world economy

(D) identify the most important characteristics of

successful economic integration

(E) trace the history of regional trading blocs

7. Which of the following best describes the organization

of the passage?

(A) An argument is put forth and evidence for and

against it given.

(B) An assertion is made and opposing evidence


(C) Two hypotheses are described and shown to

inconsistent with one another.

(D) A phenomenon is identified and illustrations of this

phenomenon offered.

(E) A specific case of a phenomenon is discussed a

generalization drawn.

Passage 47

In Forces of Production, David Noble examines the

transformation of the machine-tool industry as the industry

moved from reliance on skilled artisans to automation.

Noble writes from a Marxist perspective, and his central

(5) argument is that management, in its decisions to automate,

conspired against labor: the power that the skilled machin-

ists wielded in the industry was intolerable to management.

Noble fails to substantiate this claim, although his argu-

ment is impressive when he applies the Marxist concept of

(10) “de-skilling”—the use of technology to replace skilled

labor—to the automation of the machine-tool industry. In

automating, the industry moved to computer-based, digi-

talized “numerical-control” (N/C) technology, rather than to

artisan-generated “record-playback” (R/P) technology.

(15) Although both systems reduced reliance on skilled labor,

Noble clearly prefers R/P, with its inherent acknowledg-

ment of workers’ skills: unlike N/C, its programs were

produced not by engineers at their computers, but by

skilled machinists, who recorded their own movements to

(20) “teach” machines to duplicate those movements. However,

Noble’s only evidence of conspiracy is that, although the

two approaches were roughly equal in technical merit,

management chose N/C. From this he concludes that auto-

mation is undertaken not because efficiency demands it or

(25) scientific advances allow it, but because it is a tool in

the ceaseless war of capitalists against labor.

1. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) reexamining a political position and defending its


(B) examining a management decision and defending its


(C) analyzing a scholarly study and pointing out a

central weakness

(D) explaining a trend in automation and warning about

its dangers

(E) chronicling the history of an industry and criticizing

its development

2. According to information in the passage, the term “de-

skilling” refers to the

(A) loss of skills to industry when skilled workers are

replaced by unskilled laborers

(B) substitution of mechanized processes for labor

formerly performed by skilled workers

(C) labor theory that automation is technologically

comparable to skilled labor

(D) process by which skilled machinists “teach”

machines to perform certain tasks

(E) exclusion of skilled workers from participation in

the development of automated technology

3. Which of the following best characterizes the function

of the second paragraph of the passage?

(A) It develops a topic introduced in the first paragraph.

(B) It provides evidence to refute a claim presented in

the first paragraph.

(C) It gives examples of a phenomenon mentioned in the

first paragraph.

(D) It presents a generalization about examples given in

the first paragraph.

(E) It suggests two possible solutions to a problem

presented in the first paragraph.

4. The passage suggests which of the following about N

automation in the machine-tool industry?

(A) It displaced fewer skilled workers than R/P

automation did.

(B) It could have been implemented either by

experienced machinists or by computer engineers.

(C) It was designed without the active involvement

skilled machinists.

(D) It was more difficult to design than R/P automation


(E) It was technically superior to R/P automation.

5. Which of the following phrases most clearly reveals the

attitude of the author of the passage toward Noble’s

central argument?

(A) “conspired against” (line 6)

(B) “intolerable to management” (line 7)

(C) “impressive when he applies the Marxist concept”

(line 9)

(D) “clearly prefers” (line 16)

(E) “only evidence of conspiracy” (line 21)

6. The author of the passage commends Noble’s book for

which of the following?

(A) Concentrating on skilled as opposed to unskilled

workers in its discussion of the machine-tool


(B) Offering a generalization about the motives behind

the machine-tool industry’s decision to automate

(C) Making an essential distinction between two kinds

of technology employed in the machine-tool industry

(D) Calling into question the notion that managers

conspired against labor in the automation of the

machine-tool industry

(E) Applying the concept of de-skilling to the machine-

tool industry

7. Which of the following best characterizes Forces of

Production as it is described in the passage?

(A) A comparison of two interpretations of how a

particular industry evolved

(B) An examination of the origin of a particular concept in industrial economics

(C) A study that points out the weakness of a particular

interpretation of an industrial phenomenon

(D) A history of a particular industry from an

ideological point of view

(E) An attempt to relate an industrial phenomenon in

one industry to a similar phenomenon in another


Passage 48

The sensation of pain cannot accurately be described as

“located” at the point of an injury, or, for that matter,

in any one place in the nerves or brain. Rather, pain

signals—and pain relief—are delivered through a highly

(5) complex interacting circuitry.

When a cell is injured, a rush of prostaglandin’s

sensitizes nerve endings at the injury. Prostaglandins are

chemicals produced in and released from virtually all

mammalian cells when they are injured: these are the only

(10) pain signals that do not originate in the nervous system.

Aspirin and other similar drugs (such as indomethacin and

ibuprofen) keep prostaglandins from being made by inter-

fering with an enzyme known as prostaglandin synthetase,

or cyclooxygenase. The drugs’ effectiveness against pain is

(15) proportional to their success in blocking this enzyme at the

site of injury.

From nerve endings at the injury, pain signais move to

nerves feeding into the spinal cord. The long, tubular

membranes of nerve cells carry electrical impulses. When

(20) electrical impulses get to the spinal cord, a pain-signaling

chemical known as substance P is released there.

Substance P then excites nearby neurons to send impulses

to the brain. Local anesthetics such as novocaine and

xylocaine work by blocking the electrical transmission

(25)along nerves in a particular area. They inhibit the flow of

sodium ions through the membranes, making the nerves

electrically quiescent; thus no pain signals are sent to the

spinal cord or to the brain.

Recent discoveries in the study of pain have involved

(30) the brain itself—the supervising organ that notices pain

signals and that sends messages down to the spinal cord

to regulate incoming pain traffic. Endorphins—the brain’s

own morphine—are a class of small peptides that help to

block pain signals within the brain itself. The presence

(35) of endorphins may also help to explain differences in

response to pain signals, since individuals seem to differ

in their ability to produce endorphins. It now appears that

a number of techniques for blocking chronic pain—such

as acupuncture and electrical stimulation of the central

(40) brain stem—involve the release of endorphins in the brain

and spinal cord.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) analyzing ways that enzymes and other chemicals

influence how the body feels pain

(B) describing the presence of endorphins in the brain

and discussing ways the body blocks pain within the

brain itself.

(C) describing how pain signals are conveyed in the

body and discussing ways in which the pain signals

can be blocked

(D) demonstrating that pain can be influenced by

acupuncture and electrical stimulation of the central

brain stem.

(E) differentiating the kinds of pain that occur at

different points in the body’s nervous system.

2. According to the passage, which of the following is one

of the first things to occur when cells are injured?

  1. The flow of electrical impulses through nerve cells

at the site of the injury is broken.

(B) The production of substance P traveling through

nerve cells to the brain increases.

(C) Endorphins begin to speed up the response of nerve

cells at the site of the injury.

(D) A flood of prostaglandins sensitizes nerve endings at

the site of the injury.

(E) Nerve cells connected to the spinal cord become

electrically quiescent.

3. Of the following, which is most likely attributable to the

effect of endorphins as described in the passage?

(A) After an injection of novocaine, a patient has no

feeling in the area where the injection was given.

(B) After taking ibuprofen, a person with a headache

gets quick relief.

(C) After receiving a local anesthetic, an injured person

reports relief in the anestherized area.

(D) After being given aspirin, a child with a badly

scraped elbow feels better.

(E) After acupuncture, a patient with chronic back pain

reports that the pain is much less severe.

4. It can be inferred from the passage that if the

prostaglandin synthetase is only partially blocked, which

of the following is likely to be true?

(A) Some endorphins will be produced, and some pain

signals will be intensified.

(B) Some substance P is likely to be produced, so some

pain signals will reach the brain.

(C) Some sodium ions will be blocked, so some pain

signals will not reach the brain.

(D) Some prostaglandins will be produced, but

production of substance P will be prevented.

(E) Some peptides in the brain will receive pain signals

and begin to regulate incoming pain traffic.

Passage 49

Traditionally, the first firm to commercialize a new

technology has benefited from the unique opportunity to

shape product definitions, forcing followers to adapt to a

standard or invest in an unproven alternative. Today, how-

( 5) ever, the largest payoffs may go to companies that lead in

developing integrated approaches for successful mass

production and distribution.

Producers of the Beta format for videocassette recorders

(VCR’s), for example, were first to develop the VCR com-

(10) mercially in 1975, but producers of the rival VHS (Video

Home System) format proved to be more successful at

forming strategic alliances with other producers and

distributors to manufacture and market their VCR format

Seeking to maintain exclusive control over VCR distri-

(15) bution. Beta producers were reluctant to form such alli-

ances and eventually lost ground to VHS in the compe-

tition for the global VCR market.

Despite Beta’s substantial technological head start and

the fact that VHS was neither technically better nor cheaper

(20) than Beta, developers of VHS quickly turned a slight early

lead in sales into a dominant position. Strategic alignments

with producers of prerecorded tapes reinforced the VHS

advantage. The perception among consumers that prere-

corded tapes were more available in VHS format further

(25) expanded VHS’s share of the market. By the end of the

1980’s. Beta was no longer in production.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with which of the


(A) Evaluating two competing technologies

(B) Tracing the impact of a new technology by narrating

a sequence of events

(C) Reinterpreting an event from contemporary business


(D) illustrating a business strategy by means of a case


(E) Proposing an innovative approach to business


2. According to the passage, today’s successful firms,

unlike successful firms in the past, may earn the greatest

profits by

(A) investing in research to produce cheaper versions of

existing technology

(B) being the first to market a competing technology

(C) adapting rapidly to a technological standard

previously set by a competing firm

(D) establishing technological leadership in order to

shape product definitions in advance of competing


(E) emphasizing the development of methods for the

mass production and distribution of a new


3. According to the passage, consumers began to develop a

preference for VCR’s in the VHS format because they

believed which of the following?

(A) VCR’s in the VHS format were technically better

than competing-format VCR’s.

(B) VCR’s in the VHS format were less expensive than

competing-format VCR’s.

(C) VHS was the first standard format for VCR’s.

(D) VHS prerecorded videotapes were more available

than Beta-format tapes.

(E) VCR’s in the Beta format would soon cease to be


4. The author implies that one way that VHS producers

won control over the VCR market was by

(A) carefully restricting access to VCR technology

(B) giving up a slight early lead in VCR sales in order to

improve long-term prospects.

(C) retaining a strict monopoly on the production of

prerecorded videotapes.

(D) sharing control of the marketing of VHS-format


(E) sacrificing technological superiority over Betaformat

VCR’s in order to remain competitive in price.

5. The alignment of producers of VHS-format VCR’s with

producers of prerecorded videotapes is most similar to

which of the following?

(A) The alignment of an automobile manufacturer with

another automobile manufacturer to adopt a

standard design for automobile engines.

(B) The alignment of an automobile manufacturer with

an automotive glass company whereby the

manufacturer agrees to purchase automobile

windshields only from that one glass company

(C) The alignment of an automobile manufacturer with a

petroleum company to ensure the widespread

availability of the fuel required by a new type of

engine developed by the manufacturer.

(D) The alignment of an automobile manufacturer with

its dealers to adopt a plan to improve automobile


(E) The alignment of an automobile dealer with an

automobile rental chain to adopt a strategy for an

advertising campaign to promote a new type of


6. Which of the following best describes the relation of the

first paragraph to the passage as a whole?

(A) It makes a general observation to be exemplified.

(B) It outlines a process to be analyzed.

(C) It poses a question to be answered.

(D) It advances an argument to be disputed.

(E) It introduces conflicting arguments to be reconciled.

Passage 50

Australian researchers have discovered electroreceptors

(sensory organs designed to respond to electrical fields)

clustered at the tip of the spiny anteater’s snout. The

researchers made this discovery by exposing small areas of

(5) the snout to extremely weak electrical fields and recording

the transmission of resulting nervous activity to the brain.

While it is true that tactile receptors, another kind of

sensory organ on the anteater’s snout, can also respond to

electrical stimuli, such receptors do so only in response to

( 10) electrical field strengths about 1,000 times greater than

those known to excite electroreceptors.

Having discovered the electroreceptors, researchers are

now investigating how anteaters utilize such a sophisticated

sensory system. In one behavioral experiment, researchers

(15) successfully trained an anteater to distinguish between

two troughs of water, one with a weak electrical field

and the other with none. Such evidence is consistent with

researchers’ hypothesis that anteaters use electroreceptors

to detect electrical signals given off by prey; however,

( 20) researchers as yet have been unable to detect electrical

signals emanating from termite mounds, where the favorite

food of anteaters live. Still, researchers have observed

anteaters breaking into a nest of ants at an oblique angle

and quickly locating nesting chambers. This ability quickly

(25) to locate unseen prey suggests, according to the researchers,

that the anteaters were using their electroreceptors to

locate the nesting chambers.

1. According to the passage, which of the following is a

characteristic that distinguishes electroreceptors from

tactile receptors?

(A) The manner in which electroreceptors respond to

electrical stimuli

(B) The tendency of electroreceptors to be found in


(C) The unusual locations in which electroreceptors are

found in most species.

(D) The amount of electrical stimulation required to

excite electroreceptors

(E) The amount of nervous activity transmitted to the

brain by electroreceptors when they are excited

2. Which of the following can be inferred about the

experiment described in the first paragraph?

(A) Researchers had difficulty verifying the existence of

electroreceptors in the anteater because

electroreceptors respond to such a narrow range of

electrical field strengths.

(B) Researchers found that the level of nervous activity

in the anteater’s brain increased dramatically as the

strength of the electrical stimulus was increased.

(C) Researchers found that some areas of the anteater’s

snout were not sensitive to a weak electrical


(D) Researchers found that the anteater’s tactile

receptors were more easily excited by a strong

electrical stimulus than were the electro receptors..

(E) Researchers tested small areas of the anteater’s snout

in order to ensure that only electroreceptors were

responding to the stimulus.

3. The author of the passage most probably discusses the

function of tactile receptors (lines 7-11) in order to

(A) eliminate and alternative explanation of anteaters’

response to electrical stimuli

(B) highlight a type of sensory organ that has a function

identical to that of electroreceptors

(C) point out a serious complication in the research on

electroreceptors in anteaters.

(D) suggest that tactile receptors assist electroreceptors

in the detection of electrical signals.

(E) introduce a factor that was not addressed in the

research on electroreceptors in anteaters.

4. Which of the following can be inferred about anteaters

from the behavioral experiment mentioned in the

second paragraph?

(A) They are unable to distinguish between stimuli

detected by their electroreceptors and stimuli

detected by their tactile receptors.

(B) They are unable to distinguish between the electrical

signals emanating from termite mounds and those

emanating from ant nests.

(C) They can be trained to recognize consistently the

presence of a particular stimulus.

(D) They react more readily to strong than to weak


(E) They are more efficient at detecting stimuli in a

controlled environment than in a natural


5. The passage suggests that the researchers mentioned in

the second paragraph who observed anteaters break into

a nest of ants would most likely agree with which of the

following statements?

(A) The event they observed provides conclusive

evidence that anteaters use their electroreceptors to

locate unseen prey.

(B) The event they observed was atypical and may not

reflect the usual hunting practices of anteaters.

(C) It is likely that the anteaters located the ants’ nesting

chambers without the assistance of electroreceptors.

(D) Anteaters possess a very simple sensory system for

use in locating prey.

(E) The speed with which the anteaters located their

prey is greater than what might be expected on the

basis of chance alone.

6. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen

the hypothesis mentioned in lines 17-19?

(A) Researchers are able to train anteaters to break into

an underground chamber that is emitting a strong

electrical signal.

(B) Researchers are able to detect a weak electrical

signal emanating from the nesting chamber of an ant


(C) Anteaters are observed taking increasingly longer

amounts of time to locate the nesting chambers of


(D) Anteaters are observed using various angles to break

into nests of ants.

(E) Anteaters are observed using the same angle used

with nests of ants to break into the nests of other types

of prey.

Passage 51

When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the

Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, he began a ten-year

battle to win recognition from the Pullman Company, the

largest private employer of Black people in the United

(5) States and the company that controlled the railroad

industry’s sleeping car and parlor service. In 1935 the

Brotherhood became the first Black union recognized by a

major corporation. Randolph’s efforts in the battle helped

transform the attitude of Black workers toward unions and

(10) toward themselves as an identifiable group; eventually,

Randolph helped to weaken organized labor’s antagonism

toward Black workers.

In the Pullman contest Randolph faced formidable

obstacles. The first was Black workers’ understandable

( 15) skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred

Black workers from membership. An additional obstacle

was the union that Pullman itself had formed, which

weakened support among Black workers for an

independent entity.

(20) The Brotherhood possessed a number of advantages,

however, including Randolph’s own tactical abilities. In

1928 he took the bold step of threatening a strike against

Pullman. Such a threat, on a national scale, under Black

leadership, helped replace the stereotype of the Black

(25)worker as servant with the image of the Black worker as

wage earner. In addition, the porters’ very isolation aided

the Brotherhood. Porters were scattered throughout the

country, sleeping in dormitories in Black communities;

their segregated life protected the union’s internal

(30) communications from interception. That the porters were a

homogeneous group working for a single employer with

single labor policy, thus sharing the same grievances from

city to city, also strengthened the Brotherhood and encour-

aged racial identity and solidarity as well. But it was only

(35) in the early 1930’s that federal legislation prohibiting a

company from maintaining its own unions with company

money eventually allowed the Brotherhood to become

recognized as the porters’ representative.

Not content with this triumph, Randolph brought the

(40) Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor, where

it became the equal of the Federation’s 105 other unions.

He reasoned that as a member union, the Brotherhood

would be in a better position to exert pressure on member

unions that practiced race restrictions. Such restrictions

were eventually found unconstitutional in 1944.

1. According to the passage, by 1935 the skepticism of

Black workers toward unions was

(A) unchanged except among Black employees of

railroad-related industries.

(B) reinforced by the actions of the Pullman Company’s


(C) mitigated by the efforts of Randolph

(D) weakened by the opening up of many unions to

Black workers.

(E) largely alleviated because of the policies of the

American Federation of Labor.

2. In using the word “understandable” (line 14), the

author most clearly conveys

(A) sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood

between 1925 and 1935 to establish an independent


(B) concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph

between 1925 and 1935 were indeed formidable

(C) ambivalence about the significance of unions to

most Black workers in the 1920’s.

(D) appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers

in the 1920’s toward unions.

(E) regret at the historical attitude of unions toward

Black workers.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the

response of porters to the Pullman Company’s own


(A) Few porters ever joined this union.

(B) Some porters supported this union before 1935.

(C) Porters, more than other Pullman employees,

enthusiastically supported this union.

(D) The porters’ response was most positive after 1935.

(E) The porters’ response was unaffected by the general

skepticism of Black workers concerning unions.

4. The passage suggests that if the grievances of porters in

one part of the United States had been different from

those of porters in another part of the country, which of

the following would have been the case?

(A) It would have been more difficult for the Pullman

Company to have had a single labor policy.

(B) It would have been more difficult for the

Brotherhood to control its channels of


(C) It would have been more difficult for the

Brotherhood to uild its membership.

(D) It would have been easier for the Pullman

Company’s union to attract membership.

(E) It would have been easier for the Brotherhood to

threaten strikes.

5. The passage suggests that in the 1920’s a company in

the United States was able to

(A) use its own funds to set up a union

(B) require its employees to join the company’s own


(C) develop a single labor policy for all its employees

with little employee dissent.

(D) pressure its employees to contribute money to

maintain the company’s own union

(E) use its resources to prevent the passage of federal

legislation that would have facilitated the formation

of independent unions.

6. The passage supplies information concerning which of

the following matters related to Randolph?

(A) The steps he took to initiate the founding of the


(B) His motivation for bringing the Brotherhood into the

American Federation of Labor

(C) The influence he had on the passage of legislation

overturning race restrictions in 1944

(D) The influence he had on the passage of legislation to

bar companies from financing their own unions

(E) The success he and the Brotherhood had in

influencing the policies of the other unions in the

American Federation of Labor

Passage 52

Seeking a competitive advantage, some professional

service firms(for example, firms providing advertising,

accounting, or health care services) have considered

offering unconditional guarantees of satisfaction. Such

(5) guarantees specify what clients can expect and what the

firm will do if it fails to fulfill these expectations.

Particularly with first-time clients, an unconditional

guarantee can be an effective marketing tool if the

client is very cautious, the firm’s fees are high, the

(10) negative consequences of bad service are grave, or

business is difficult to obtain through referrals and


However, an unconditional guarantee can sometimes

hinder marketing efforts. With its implication that fail-

(15) ure is possible, the guarantee may, paradoxically, cause

clients to doubt the service firm’s ability to deliver the

promised level of service. It may conflict with a firm’s

desire to appear sophisticated, or may even suggest that

a firm is begging for business. In legal and health care

(20) services, it may mislead clients by suggesting that law-

suits or medical procedures will have guaranteed out-

comes. Indeed, professional service firms with outstandin

reputations and performance to match have little to gain

from offering unconditional guarantees. And any firm

(25) that implements an unconditional guarantee without

undertaking a commensurate commitment to quality of

service is merely employing a potentially costly

marketing gimmick.

1. The primary function of the passage as a whole is to

(A) account for the popularity of a practice

(B) evaluate the utility of a practice

(C) demonstrate how to institute a practice

(D) weigh the ethics of using a strategy

(E) explain the reasons for pursuing a strategy

2. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as

circumstances in which professional service firms can

benefit from offering an unconditional guarantee


(A) The firm is having difficulty retaining its clients of

long standing.

(B) The firm is having difficulty getting business

through client recommendations.

(C) The firm charges substantial fees for its services.

(D) The adverse effects of poor performance by the firm

are significant for the client.

(E) The client is reluctant to incur risk.

3. Which of the following is cited in the passage as a goal

of some professional service firms in offering

unconditional guarantees of satisfaction?

(A) A limit on the firm’s liability

(B) Successful competition against other firms

(C) Ability to justify fee increases

(D) Attainment of an outstanding reputation in a field

(E) Improvement in the quality of the firm’s service

4. The passage’s description of the issue raised by

unconditional guarantees for health care or legal

services most clearly implies that which of the following

is true?

(A) The legal and medical professions have standards of

practice that would be violated by attempts to fulfill

such unconditional guarantees.

(B) The result of a lawsuit of medical procedure cannot

necessarily be determined in advance by the

professionals handling a client’s case.

(C) The dignity of the legal and medical professions is

undermined by any attempts at marketing of

professional services, including unconditional


(D) Clients whose lawsuits or medical procedures have

unsatisfactory outcomes cannot be adequately

compensated by financial settlements alone.

(E) Predicting the monetary cost of legal or health care

services is more difficult than predicting the

monetary cost of other types of professional


5. Which of the following hypothetical situations best

exemplifies the potential problem noted in the second

sentence of the second paragraph (lines 14-17)?

(A) A physician’s unconditional guarantee of

satisfaction encourages patients to sue for

malpractice if they are unhappy with the treatment

they receive.

(B) A lawyer’s unconditional guarantee of satisfaction

makes clients suspect that the lawyer needs to find

new clients quickly to increase the firm’s income.

(C) A business consultant’s unconditional guarantee of

satisfaction is undermined when the consultant fails

to provide all of the services that are promised.

(D) An architect’s unconditional guarantee of

satisfaction makes clients wonder how often the

architect’s buildings fail to please clients.

(E) An accountant’s unconditional guarantee of

satisfaction leads clients to believe that tax returns

prepared by the accountant are certain to be


6. The passage most clearly implies which of the following

about the professional service firms mentioned in line


(A) They are unlikely to have offered unconditional

guarantees of satisfaction in the past.

(B) They are usually profitable enough to be able to

compensate clients according to the terms of an

unconditional guarantee.

(C) They usually practice in fields in which the

outcomes are predictable.

(D) Their fees are usually more affordable than those

charged by other professional service firms.

(E) Their clients are usually already satisfied with the

quality of service that is delivered.

Passage 53

Although genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses

can lead to epidemics, some epidemics are caused by

bacteria and viruses that have undergone no significant

genetic change. In analyzing the latter, scientists have

(5) discovered the importance of social and ecological fac-

tors to epidemics. Poliomyelitis, for example, emerged

as an epidemic in the United States in the twentieth

century; by then, modern sanitation was able to delay

exposure to polio until adolescence or adulthood, at

(10) which time polio infection produced paralysis. Previ-

ously, infection had occurred during infancy, when it

typically provided lifelong immunity without paralysis.

Thus, the hygiene that helped prevent typhoid epidemics

indirectly fostered a paralytic polio epidemic. Another

(15) example is Lyme disease, which is caused by bacteria

that are transmitted by deer ticks. It occurred only spo-

radically during the late nineteenth century but has

recently become prevalent in parts of the United States,

largely due to an increase in the deer population that

(20) occurred simultaneously with the growth of the suburbs

and increased outdoor recreational activities in the

deer’s habitat. Similarly, an outbreak of dengue hemor-

rhagic fever became an epidemic in Asia in the 1950’s

because of ecological changes that caused Aedes aegypti,

(25) the mosquito that transmits the dengue virus, to proliferate

The stage is now set in the United States for a

dengue epidemic because of the inadvertent introduction

and wide dissemination of another mosquito, Aedes


1. The passage suggests that a lack of modern sanitation

would make which of the following most likely to


(A) An outbreak of Lyme disease

(B) An outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever

(C) An epidemic of typhoid

(D) An epidemic of paralytic polio among infants

(E) An epidemic of paralytic polio among adolescents

and adults

2. According to the passage, the outbreak of dengue

hemorrhagic fever in the 1950’s occurred for which of

the following reasons?

(A) The mosquito Aedes aegypti was newly introduced

into Asia.

(B) The mosquito Aedes aegypti became more


(C) The mosquito Aedes albopictus became infected

with the dengue virus.

(D) Individuals who would normally acquire immunity

to the dengue virus as infants were not infected until

later in life.

(E) More people began to visit and inhabit areas in

which mosquitos live and breed.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that Lyme disease

has become prevalent in parts of the United States

because of which of the following?

(A) The inadvertent introduction of Lyme disease

bacteria to the United States

(B) The inability of modern sanitation methods to

eradicate Lyme disease bacteria

(C) A genetic mutation in Lyme disease bacteria that

makes them more virulent

(D) The spread of Lyme disease bacteria from infected

humans to noninfected humans

(E) An increase in the number of humans who encounter

deer ticks

4. Which of the following can most reasonably be

concluded about the mosquito Aedes albopictus on the

basis of information given in the passage?

(A) It is native to the United States.

(B) It can proliferate only in Asia.

(C) It transmits the dengue virus.

(D) It caused an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever

in the 1950’s.

(E) It replaced Aedes aegypti in Asia when ecological

changes altered Aedes aegypti’s habitat.

5. Which of the following best describes the organization

of the passage?

(A) A paradox is stated, discussed and left unresolved.

(B) Two opposing explanations are presented, argued,

and reconciled.

(C) A theory is proposed and is then followed by

descriptions of three experiments that support the


(D) A generalization is stated and is then followed by

three instances that support the generalization.

(E) An argument is described and is then followed by

three counterexamples that refute the argument.

6. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen

the author’s assertion about the cause of the Lyme

disease outbreak in the United States?

(A) The deer population was smaller in the late

nineteenth century than in the mid-twentieth century.

(B) Interest in outdoor recreation began to grow in the

late nineteenth century.

(C) In recent years the suburbs have stopped growing.

(D) Outdoor recreation enthusiasts routinely take

measures to protect themselves against Lyme


(E) Scientists have not yet developed a vaccine that can

prevent Lyme disease.

Passage 54

Two modes of argumentation have been used on

behalf of women’s emancipation in Western societies.

Arguments in what could be called the “relational”

feminist tradition maintain the doctrine of “equality in

(5) difference,” or equity as distinct for equality. They

posit that biological distinctions between the sexes

result in a necessary sexual division of labor in the

family and throughout society and that women’s pro-

creative labor is currently undervalued by society, to

(10) the disadvantage of women. By contrast, the individual-

ist feminist tradition emphasizes individual human rights

and celebrates women’s quest for personal autonomy,

while downplaying the importance of gender roles and

minimizing discussion of childbearing and its attendant

(15) responsibilities.

Before the late nineteenth century, these views

coexisted within the feminist movement, often within

the writings of the same individual. Between 1890 nd

1920, however, relational feminism, which had been the

(20) dominant strain in feminist thought, and which still pre-

dominates among European and non-Western feminists,

lost ground in England and the United States. Because

the concept of individual rights was already well estab-

lished in the Anglo-Saxon legal and political tradition,

(25) individualist feminism came to predominate in English-

speaking countries. At the same time, the goals of the

two approaches began to seem increasingly irreconcil-

able. Individualist feminists began to advocate a totally

gender-blind system with equal rights for all. Relational

(30) feminists, while agreeing that equal educational and

economic opportunities outside the home should be avail-

able for all women, continued to emphasize women’s

special contributions to society as homemakers and

mothers; they demanded special treatment

(35) including protective legislation for women workers,

state-sponsored maternity benefits, and paid compensa-

tion for housework.

Relational arguments have a major pitfall: because

they underline women’s physiological and psychological

(40) distinctiveness, they are often appropriated by political

adversaries and used to endorse male privilege. But the

individualist approach, by attacking gender roles, deny-

ing the significance of physiological difference, and

condemning existing familial institutions as hopelessly

(45) patriarchal, has often simply treated as irrelevant the

family roles important to many women. If the individu-

alist framework, with its claim for women’s autonomy,

could be harmonized with the family-oriented concerns

of relational feminists, a more fruitful model for con-

(50) temporary feminist politics could emerge.

1. The author of the passage alludes to the well-

established nature of the concept of individual rights in

the Anglo-Saxon legal and political tradition in order to

(A) illustrate the influence of individualist feminist

thought on more general intellectual trends in

English history

(B) argue that feminism was already a part of the larger

Anglo-Saxon intellectual tradition, even though this

has often gone unnoticed by critics of women’s


(C) explain the decline in individualist thinking among

feminists in non-English-speaking countries

(D) help account for an increasing shift toward

individualist feminism among feminists in English-

speaking countries.

(E) account for the philosophical differences between

individualist and relational feminists in English-

speaking countries

2. The passage suggests that the author of the passage

believes which of the following?

(A) The predominance of individualist feminism in

English-speaking countries is a historical

phenomenon, the causes of which have not yet

been investigated.

(B) The individualist and relational feminist views are

irreconcilable, given their theoretical differences

concerning the foundations of society.

(C) A consensus concerning the direction of future

feminist politics will probably soon emerge, given

the awareness among feminists of the need for

cooperation among women.

(D) Political adversaries of feminism often misuse

arguments predicated on differences between the

sexes to argue that the existing social system

should be maintained.

(E) Relational feminism provides the best theoretical

framework for contemporary feminist politics, but

individualist feminism could contribute much

toward refining and strengthening modern feminist


3. It can be inferred from the passage that the individualist

feminist tradition denies the validity of which of the

following causal statements?

(A) A division of labor in a social group can result in

increased efficiency with regard to the performance

of group tasks.

(B) A division of labor in a social group causes

inequities in the distribution of opportunities and

benefits among group members.

(C) A division of labor on the basis of gender in a social

group is necessitated by the existence of sex-linked

biological differences between male and female

members of the group.

(D) Culturally determined distinctions based on gender

in a social group foster the existence of differing

attitudes and opinions among group members.

(E) Educational programs aimed at reducing inequalities

based on gender among members of a social group

can result in a sense of greater well-being for all

members of the group.

4. According to the passage, relational feminists and

individualist feminists agree that

(A) individual human rights take precedence over most

other social claims

(B) the gender-based division of labor in society should

be eliminated

(C) laws guaranteeing equal treatment for all citizens

regardless of gender should be passed

(D) a greater degree of social awareness concerning the

importance of motherhood would be beneficial to


(E) the same educational and economic opportunities

should be available to both sexes

5. According to the author, which of the following was true

of feminist thought in Western societies before 1890?

(A) Individualist feminist arguments were not found in

the thought or writing of non-English-speaking


(B) Individualist feminism was a strain in feminist

thought, but another strain, relational feminism,


(C) Relational and individualist approaches were equally

prevalent in feminist thought and writing.

(D) The predominant view among feminists held that the

welfare of women was ultimately less important than

the welfare of children.

(E) The predominant view among feminists held that the

sexes should receive equal treatment under the law.

6. The author implies that which of the following was true

of most feminist thinkers in England and the United

States after 1920?

(A) They were less concerned with politics than with

intellectual issues.

(B) They began to reach a broader audience and their

programs began to be adopted by mainstream

political parties.

(C) They called repeatedly for international cooperation

among women’s groups to achieve their goals.

(D) They moderated their initial criticism of the

economic systems that characterized their societies.

(E) They did not attempt to unite the two different

feminist approaches in their thought.

Passage 55

Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth

in temporary employment that occurred in the United

states during the 1980’s to increased participation in

the workforce by certain groups, such as first-time or

(5) reentering workers, who supposedly prefer such arrange-

ments. However, statistical analyses reveal that demo-

graphic changes in the workforce did not correlate with

variations in the total number of temporary workers.

Instead, these analyses suggest that factors affecting.

(10) employers account for the rise in temporary employ-

ment. One factor is product demand: temporary

employment is favored by employers who are adapting

to fluctuating demand for products while at the same

time seeking to reduce overall labor costs. Another

(15) factor is labor’s reduced bargaining strength, which

allows employers more control over the terms of

employment. Given the analyses, which reveal that

growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the

level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of

(20) groups said to prefer temporary jobs, firms should be

discouraged from creating excessive numbers of tem-

porary positions. Government policymakers should

consider mandating benefit coverage for temporary

employees, promoting pay equity between temporary

(25) and permanent workers, assisting labor unions in orga-

nizing temporary workers, and encouraging firms to

assign temporary jobs primarily to employees who

explicitly indicate that preference.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present the results of statistical analyses and propose

further studies.

(B) explain a recent development and predict its

eventual consequences.

(C) identify the reasons for a trend and recommend

measures to address it.

(D) outline several theories about a phenomenon and

advocate one of them

(E) describe the potential consequences of implementing

a new policy and argue in favor of that policy.

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true

of the “factors affecting employers” that are mentioned

in lines


(A) Most experts cite them as having initiated the

growth in temporary employment that occurred

during the 1980’s.

(B) They may account for the increase in the total

number of temporary workers during the 1980’s.

(C) They were less important than demographic change

in accounting for the increase of temporary

employment during the 1980’s.

(D) They included a sharp increase in the cost of labor

during the 1980’s.

(E) They are more difficult to account for than at other

factors involved in the growth of temporary

employment during the 1980’s.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the

use of temporary employment by firms during the


(A) It enabled firms to deal with fluctuating product

demand far more efficiently than they before the


(B) It increased as a result of increased participation in

the workforce by certain demograp groups.

(C) It was discouraged by government-mandated


(D) It was a response to preferences indicated by certain

employees for more flexible working arrangements.

(E) It increased partly as a result of workers’ reduced

ability to control the terms of their employment.

4. The passage suggests which of the following about the

workers who took temporary jobs during the 1980’s?

(A) Their jobs frequently led to permanent positions

within firms.

(B) They constituted a less demographically diverse

group than has been suggested.

(C) They were occasionally involved in actions

organized by labor unions.

(D) Their pay declined during the decade in comparison

with the pay of permanent employees.

(E) They did not necessarily prefer temporary

employment to permanent employment.

5. The first sentence in the passage suggests that the

observers mentioned in line 1 would be most likely to

predict which of the following?
(A) That the number of new temporary positions would

decline as fewer workers who preferred temporary

employment entered the workforce.

(B) That the total number of temporary positions would

increase as fewer workers were able to find

permanent positions

(C) That employers would have less control over the

terms of workers’ employment as workers

increased their bargaining strength.

(D) That more workers would be hired for temporary

positions as product demand increased.

(E) That the number of workers taking temporary

positions would increase as more workers in any

given demographic group entered the workforce.

6. In the context of the passage, the word “excessive” (line

21) most closely corresponds to which of the

following phrases?

(A) Far more than can be justified by worker


(B) Far more than can be explained by fluctuations in

product demand.

(C) Far more than can be beneficial to the success of the

firms themselves.

(D) Far more than can be accounted for by an expanding

national economy.

(E) Far more than can be attributed to increases in the

total number of people in the workforce.

7. The passage mentions each of the following as an

appropriate kind of governmental action EXCEPT

(A) getting firms to offer temporary employment

primarily to a certain group of people.

(B) encouraging equitable pay for temporary and

permanent employees

(C) facilitating the organization of temporary workers by

labor unions.

(D) establishing guidelines on the proportion of

temporary workers that firms should employ

(E) ensuring that temporary workers obtain benefits

from their employers.

Passage 56

Although numbers of animals in a given region may

fluctuate from year to year, the fluctuations are often

temporary and, over long periods, trivial. Scientists

have advanced three theories of population control to

(5) account for this relative constancy.

The first theory attributes a relatively constant popu-

lation to periodic climatic catastrophes that decimate

populations with such frequency as to prevent them

from exceeding some particular limit. In the case of

(10) small organisms with short life cycles, climatic changes

need not be catastrophic: normal seasonal changes in

photoperiod (daily amount of sunlight), for example,

can govern population growth. This theory—the

density-independent view—asserts that climatic factors

(15) exert the same regulatory effect on population regard-

less of the number of individuals in a region.

A second theory argues that population growth is

primarily density-dependent—that is, the rate of

growth of a population in a region decreases as the

(20) number of animals increases. The mechanisms that

manage regulation may vary. For example, as numbers

increase, the food supply would probably diminish,

which would increase mortality. In addition, as Lotka

and Volterra have shown, predators can find prey more

(25) easily in high-density populations. Other regulators

include physiological control mechanisms: for example.

Christian and Davis have demonstrated how the

crowding that results from a rise in numbers may bring

about hormonal changes in the pituitary and adrenal

(30) glands that in turn may regulate population by lowering

sexual activity and inhibiting sexual maturation. There

is evidence that these effects may persist for three

generations in the absence of the original provocation.

One challenge for density-dependent theorists is to

(35) develop models that would allow the precise prediction

of the effects of crowding.

A third theory, proposed by Wynne-Edwards and

termed “epideictic,” argues that organisms have evolved

a “code”in the form of social or epideictic behavior

(40) displays, such as winter-roosting aggregations or group

vocalizing; such codes provide organisms with infor-

mation on population size in a region so that they can,

if necessary, exercise reproductive restraint. However,

wynne-Edwards’ theory, linking animal social behavior

(45) and population control, has been challenged, with some

justification, by several studies.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) argue against those scientists who maintain that

animal populations tend to fluctuate

(B) compare and contrast the density-dependent

and epideictic theories of population control

(C) provide example of some of the ways in which

animals exercise reproductive restraint to

control their own numbers

(D) suggests that theories of population control that

concentrate on the social behavior of animals

are more open to debate than are theories that do not

(E) summarize a number of scientific theories that

attempt to explain why animal populations do

not exceed certain limits

2. It can be inferred from the passage that proponents

of the density-dependent theory of population control

have not yet been able to

(A) use their theory to explain the population growth of

organisms with short life cycles

(B) reproduce the results of the study of Christian and


(C) explain adequately why the numbers of a population

can increase as the population’s rate of growth


(D) make sufficiently accurate predictions about the

effects of crowding

(E) demonstrate how predator populations are

themselves regulated

3. Which of the following, if true, would best support the

density-dependent theory of population control as it is

described in the passage?

(A) As the number of foxes in Minnesota decrease, the

growth rate of this population of foxes begins of


(B) As the number of woodpeckers in Vermont

decreases, the growth rate of this population of

woodpeckers also begins to decrease.

(C) As the number of prairie dogs in Oklahoma

increases, the growth rate of this population of

prairie dogs also begins to increase.

(D) After the number of beavers in Tennessee decreases,

the number of predators of these beavers begins to


(E) After the number of eagles in Montana decreases,

the food supply of this population of eagles also

begins to decrease.

4. According to the Wynne-Edwards theory as it is

described in the passage, epideictic behavior displays

serve the function of

(A) determining roosting aggregations

(B) locating food

(C) attracting predators

(D) regulating sexual activity

(E) triggering hormonal changes

5. The challenge posed to the Wynne-Edwards-theory by

several studies is regarded by the author with

(A) complete indifference

(B) qualified acceptance

(C) skeptical amusement

(D) perplexed astonishment

(E) agitated dismay

6. Which of the following statements would provide the

most of logical continuation of the final paragraph of the


(A) Thus wynne-Edwards’ theory raises serious

questions about the constancy of animal population

in a region.

(B) Because Wynne-Edwards’ theory is able to explain

more kinds of animal behavior than is the density-

dependent theory, epideictic explanations of


regulation are now widely accepted.

(C) The results of one study, for instance, have

suggested that group vocalizing is more often used

to defend territory than to provide information about

population density.

(D) Some of these studies have, in fact, worked out

a systematic and complex code of social behavior

that can regulate population size.

(E) One study, for example, has demonstrated that birds

are more likely to use winter-roosting aggregations

than group vocalizing in order to provide


on population size.

Passage 57

In recent years, teachers of introductory courses in

Asian American studies have been facing a dilemma

nonexistent a few decades ago, when hardly any texts

in that field were available. Today, excellent antho-

(5) logies and other introductory texts exist, and books on

individual Asian American nationality groups and on

general issues important for Asian Americans are

published almost weekly. Even professors who are

experts in the field find it difficult to decide which of

(10) these to assign to students; nonexperts who teach in

related areas and are looking for writings for and by

Asian American to include in survey courses are in an

even worse position.

A complicating factor has been the continuing lack

(15) of specialized one-volume reference works on Asian

Americans, such as biographical dictionaries or desktop

encyclopedias. Such works would enable students

taking Asian American studies courses (and professors

in related fields) to look up basic information on Asian

(20) American individuals, institutions, history, and culture

without having to wade through mountains of primary

source material. In addition, give such works, Asian

American studies professors might feel more free to

include more challenging Asian American material in

(25) their introductory reading lists, since good reference

works allow students to acquire on their own the back-

ground information necessary to interpret difficult or

unfamiliar material.

1. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

doing which of the following?

(A) Recommending a methodology

(B) Describing a course of study

(C) Discussing a problem

(D) Evaluating a past course of action

(E) Responding to a criticism

2. The “dilemma” mentioned in line 2 can best be

characterized as being caused by the necessity to make a

choice when faced with a

(A) lack of acceptable alternatives

(B) lack of strict standards for evaluating alternatives

(C) preponderance of bad alternatives as compared to


(D) multitude of different alternatives

(E) large number of alternatives that are nearly identical

in content

3. The passage suggests that the factor mentioned in lines

14-17 complicates professors’ attempts to construct

introductory reading lists for courses in Asian American

studies in which of the following ways?

(A) By making it difficult for professors to identify

primary source material and to obtain standard

information on Asian American history and culture

(B) By preventing professors from identifying excellent

anthologies and introductory texts in the field that

are both recent and understandable to students

(C) By preventing professors from adequately

evaluating the quality of the numerous texts

currently being published in the field

(D) Such courses were offered only at schools whose

libraries were rich in primary sources.

(E) By making it more necessary for professors to select

readings for their courses that are not too

challenging for students unfamiliar with Asian

American history

and culture

(E) By making it more likely that the readings

professors assign to students in their courses will be

drawn solely from primary sources

4. The passage implies that which of the following was

true of introductory courses in Asian American studies a

few decades ago?

(A) The range of different textbooks that could be

assigned for such courses was extremely limited.

(B) The texts assigned as readings in such courses were

often not very challenging for students.

(C) Students often complained about the texts assigned

to them in such courses.

(D) Such courses were the only means then available by

which people in the United States could acquire

knowledge of the field.

5. According to the passage, the existence of good one-

volume reference works about Asian Americans could

result in

(A) increased agreement among professors of Asian

American studies regarding the quality of the

sources available in their field

(B) an increase in the number of students signing up for

introductory courses in Asian American studies

(C) increased accuracy in writings that concern Asian

American history and culture

(D) the use of introductory texts about Asian American

history and culture in courses outside the field of

Asian American studies

(E) the inclusion of a wider range of Asian American

material in introductory reading lists in Asian

American studies

Passage 58

In an attempt to improve the overall performance of

clerical workers, many companies have introduced com-

puterized performance monitoring and control systems

(CPMCS) that record and report a worker’s computer-

(5) driven activities. However, at least one study has shown

that such monitoring may not be having the desired effect.

In the study, researchers asked monitored clerical workers

and their supervisors how assessments of productivity

affected supervisors’ ratings of workers’ performance. In

(10) contrast to unmonitored workers doing the same work, who

without exception identified the most important element in

their jobs as customer service, the monitored workers and

their supervisors all responded that productivity was the

critical factor in assigning ratings. This finding suggested

(15) that there should have been a strong correlation between a

monitored worker’s productivity and the overall rating the

worker received. However, measures of the relationship

between overall rating and individual elements of perfor-

mance clearly supported the conclusion that supervisors

(20) gave considerable weight to criteria such as

attendance.accuracy, and indications of customer


It is possible that productivity may be a “hygiene

factor.” that is, if it is too low, it will hurt the overall

rating. But the evidence suggests that beyond the point at

(25) which productivity becomes “good enough.” higher

productivity per se is unlikely to improve a rating.

1. According to the passage, before the final results of the

study were known, which of the following seemed


(A) That workers with the highest productivity would

also be the most accurate

(B) That workers who initially achieved high

productivity ratings would continue to do so


(C) That the highest performance ratings would be

achieved by workers with the highest productivity

(D) That the most productive workers would be those

whose supervisors claimed to value productivity

(E) That supervisors who claimed to value productivity

would place equal value on customer satisfaction

2. It can be inferred that the author of the passage

discusses “unmonitored workers”(line 10) primarily

in order to

(A) compare the ratings of these workers with the

ratings of monitored workers

(B) provide an example of a case in which monitoring

might be effective

(C) provide evidence of an inappropriate use of CPMCS

(D) emphasize the effect that CPMCS may have on

workers’ perceptions of their jobs

(E) illustrate the effect that CPMCS may have on

workers’ ratings

3. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly have

supported the conclusion referred to in lines 19-21?

(A) Ratings of productivity correlated highly with

ratings of both accuracy and attendance.

(B) Electronic monitoring greatly increased productivity.

(C) Most supervisors based overall ratings of

performance on measures of productivity alone.

(D) Overall ratings of performance correlated more

highly with measures of productivity than the

researchers expected.

(E) Overall ratings of performance correlated more

highly with measures of accuracy than with

measures of productivity.

4. According to the passage, a “hygiene factor” (lines 22-

23) is an aspect of a worker’s performance that

(A) has no effect on the rating of a worker’s


(B) is so basic to performance that it is assumed to be

adequate for all workers

(C) is given less importance than it deserves in rating a

worker’s performance

(D) if not likely to affect a worker’s rating unless it is

judged to be inadequate

(E) is important primarily because of the effect it has on

a worker’s rating

5. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) explain the need for the introduction of an

innovative strategy

(B) discuss a study of the use of a particular method

(C) recommend a course of action

(D) resolved a difference of opinion

(E) suggest an alternative approach

Passage 59

Schools expect textbooks to be a valuable source of

information for students. My research suggests, however,

that textbooks that address the place of Native Americans

within he history of the United States distort history to suit

(5) a particular cultural value system. In some textbooks, for

example, settlers are pictured as more humane, complex,

skillful, and wise than Native American. In essence,

textbooks stereotype and deprecate the numerous Native

American cultures while reinforcing the attitude that the

(10) European conquest of the New World denotes the superi-

ority of European cultures. Although textbooks evaluete

Native American architecture, political systems, and home-

making. I contend that they do it from an ethnocentric,

(15) European perspective without recognizing that other per-

spectives are possible.

One argument against my contention asserts that, by

nature, textbooks are culturally biased and that I am simply

underestimating children’s ability to see through these

(20) biases. Some researchers even claim that by the time

students are in high school, they know they cannot take

textbooks literally. Yet substantial evidence exists to the

contrary. Two researchers, for example, have conducted

studies that suggest that children’s attitudes about particular

(25) culture are strongly influenced by the textbooks used in

schools. Given this, an ongoing, careful review of how

school textbooks depict Native American is certainly


1. Which of the following would most logically be the

topic of the paragraph immediately following the


(A) Specific ways to evaluate the biases of United States

history textbooks

(B) The centrality of the teacher’s role in United States

history courses

(C) Nontraditional methods of teaching United States


(D) The contributions of European immigrants to the

development of the United States

(E) Ways in which parents influence children’s political


2. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe in detail one research study regarding the

impact of history textbooks on children’s attitudes

and beliefs about certain cultures

(B) describe revisions that should be made to United

States history textbooks

(C) discuss the difficulty of presenting an accurate

history of the United States

(D) argue that textbooks used in schools stereotype

Native Americans and influence children’s attitudes

(E) summarize ways in which some textbooks give

distorted pictures of the political systems developed

by various Native American groups

3. The author mentions two researchers’ studies (lines22-

25) most likely in order to

(A) suggest that children’s political attitudes are formed

primarily through textbooks

(B) counter the claim that children are able to see

through stereotypes in textbooks

(C) suggest that younger children tend to interpret the

messages in textbooks more literally than do older


(D) demonstrate that textbooks carry political messages

meant to influence their readers

(E) prove that textbooks are not biased in terms of their

political presentations

4. The author’s attitude toward the content of the history

textbooks discussed in the passage is best described as

one of

(A) indifference

(B) hesitance

(C) neutrality

(D) amusement

(E) disapproval

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the researchers

mentioned in line 19 would be most likely to agree

with which of the following statements?

(A) Students form attitudes about cultures other than

their own primarily inside the school environment.

(B) For the most part, seniors in high school know that

textbooks can be biased.

(C) Textbooks play a crucial role in shaping the attitudes

and beliefs of students.

(D) Elementary school students are as likely to

recognize biases in textbooks as are high school


(E) Students are less likely to give credence to history

textbooks than to mathematics textbooks.

6. The author implies tha5t which of the following will

occur if textbooks are not carefully reviewed?

(A) Children will remain ignorant of the European

settlers’ conquest of the New World.

(B) Children will lose their ability to recognize biases

in textbooks.

(C) Children will form negative stereotypes of Native


(D) Children will develop an understanding of


(E) Children will stop taking textbooks seriously.

Passage 60

Until recently, scientists did not know of a close verte-

brate analogue to the extreme form of altruism abserved in

eusocial insects like ants and bees, whereby individuals

cooperate, sometimes even sacrificing their own oppor-

( 5) tunities to survive and reproduce, for the good of others.

However, such a vertebrate society may exist among under-

ground colonies of the highly social rodent Heterocephalus

glaber, the naked mole rat.

A naked mole rat colony, like a beehive, wasp’s nest, or

(10) termite mound, is ruled by its queen, or reproducing

female. Other adult female mole rats neither ovulate nor

breed. The queen of the largest member of the colony, and

she maintains her breeding status through a mixture of

behavioral and, presumably, chemical control. Queens have

(15) been long-lived in captivity, and when they die or are

removed from a colony one sees violent fighting for breed-

ing status among the larger remaining females, leading to a

takeover by a new queen.

Eusocial insect societies have rigid caste systems, each

(20) insects’s role being defined by its behavior, body shape, and

physiology. In naked mole rat societies, on the other hand,

differences in behavior are related primarily to reproductive

status (reproduction being limited to the queen and a few

males), body size, and perhaps age. Smaller nonbreeding

(25) members, both male and female, seem to participate pri-

marily in gathering food, transporting nest material, and

tunneling. Larger nonreaders are active in defending the

colony and perhaps in removing dirt from the tunnels.

Jarvis’ work has suggested that differences in growth rates

may influence the length of time that an individual performs

(30) a task, regardless of its age.

Cooperative breeding has evolved many times in verte-

brates, but unlike naked mole rats, most cooperatively

breeding vertebrates (except the wild dog, Lycaon pictus)

(35) are dominated by a pair of breeders rather than by a single

breeding female. The division of labor within social groups

is less pronounced among other vertebrates than among

naked mole rats, colony size is much smaller, and mating

by subordinate females may not be totally suppressed,

(40) whereas in naked mole rat colonies subordinate females are

not sexually active, and many never breed.

1. Which of the following most accurately states the main

idea of the passage?

(A) Naked mole rat colonies are the only known

examples of cooperatively breeding vertebrate


(B) Naked mole rat colonies exhibit social organization

based on a rigid caste system.

(C) Behavior in naked mole rat colonies may well be

a close vertebrate analogue to behavior in eusocial

insect societies.

(D) The mating habits of naked mole rats differ from

those of any other vertebrate species.

(E) The basis for the division of labor among naked

mole rats is the same as that among eusocial insects.

2. The passage suggests that Jarvis’ work has called into

question which of the following explanatory variables

for naked mole rat behavior?

(A) Size

(B) Age

(C) Reproductive status

(D) Rate of growth

(E) Previously exhibited behavior

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the performance

of tasks in naked mole rat colonies differs from task

performance in eusocial insect societies in which of the

following ways?

(A) In naked mole rat colonies, all tasks ate performed


(B) In naked mole rat colonies, the performance of

tasks is less rigidly determined by body shape.

(C) In naked mole rat colonies, breeding is limited to

the largest animals.

(D) In eusocial insect societies, reproduction is limited

to a single female.

(E) In eusocial insect societies, the distribution of

tasks is based on body size.

4. According to the passage, which of the following is a

supposition rather than a fact concerning the queen in a

naked mole rat colony?

(A) She is the largest member of the colony.

(B) She exerts chemical control over the colony.

(C) She mates with more than one male.

(D) She attains her status through aggression.

(E) She is the only breeding female.

5. The passage supports which of the following inferences

about breeding among Lycaon pictus?

(A) The largest female in the social group does

not maintain reproductive status by means of

behavioral control.

(B) An individual’s ability to breed is related primarily

to its rate of growth.

(C) Breeding is the only task performed by the breeding


(D) Breeding in the social group is not cooperative.

(E) Breeding is not dominated by a single pair of dogs.

Passage 61

Coral reefs are one of the most fragile, biologically

complex, and diverse marine ecosystem on Earth. This

ecosystem is one of the fascinating paradoxes of the bio-

sphere: how do clear, and thus nutrient-poor, waters sup-

(5) port such prolific and productive communities? Part of the

answer lies within the tissues of the corals themselves.

Symbiotic cells of algae known as zooxanthellae carry out

photosynthesis using the metabolic wastes of the coral

thereby producing food for themselves, for their corals,

(10) hosts, and even for other members of the reef community.

This symbiotic process allows organisms in the reef com-

munity to use sparse nutrient resources efficiently.

Unfortunately for coral reefs, however, a variety of

human activities are causing worldwide degradation of

(15) shallow marine habitats by adding nutrients to the (water.

Agriculture, slash-and-burn land clearing, sewage disposal

and manufacturing that creates waste by-products all

increase nutrient loads in these waters. Typical symptoms

of reef decline are destabilized herbivore populations and

(20) an increasing abundance of algae and filter-feeding animals.

Declines in reef communities are consistent with observa-

tions that nutrient input is increasing in direct proportion to

growing human populations, thereby threatening reef com-

(25) munities sensitive to subtle changes in nutrient input to

their waters.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) describing the effects of human activities on algae in

coral reefs

(B) explaining how human activities are posing a threat

to coral reef communities

(C) discussing the process by which coral reefs

deteriorate in nutrient-poor waters

(D) explaining how coral reefs produce food for


(E) describing the abundance of algae and filter-feeding

animals in coral reef areas

2. The passage suggests which of the following about coral

reef communities?

(A) Coral reef communities may actually be more likely

to thrive in waters that are relatively low in nutrients.

(B) The nutrients on which coral reef communities

thrive are only found in shallow waters.

(C) Human population growth has led to changing ocean

temperatures, which threatens coral reef


(D) The growth of coral reef communities tends to

destabilize underwater herbivore populations.

(E) Coral reef communities are more complex and


than most ecosystems located on dry land.

3. The author refers to “filter-feeding animals” (line 20)

in order to

(A) provide an example of a characteristic sign of reef


(B) explain how reef communities acquire sustenance

for survival

(C) identify a factor that helps herbivore populations


(D) indicate a cause of decreasing nutrient input in

waters that reefs inhabit

(E) identify members of coral reef communities that rely

on coral reefs for nutrients

4. According to the passage, which of the following is a

factor that is threatening the survival of coral reef


(A) The waters they inhabit contain few nutrient


(B) A decline in nutrient input is disrupting their

symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae

(C) The degraded waters of their marine habitats have

reduced their ability to carry out photosynthesis

(D) They are too biologically complex to survive in

habitats with minimal nutrient input.

(E) Waste by-products result in an increase in nutrient

input to reef communities.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author

describes coral reef communities as paradoxical most

likely for which of the following reasons?

(A) They are thriving even though human activities

have depleted the nutrients in their environment.

(B) They are able to survive in spite of an over-

abundance of algae inhabiting their waters.

(C) They are able to survive in an environment with

limited food resources.

(D) Their metabolic wastes contribute to the degra-

dation of the waters that they inhabit.

(E) They are declining even when the water sur-

rounding them remains clear.

Passage 62

Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists’

discussions of the nature of ethnicity. The first emphasizes

the primordial and unchanging character of ethnicity. In

this view, people have an essential need for belonging that

(5) is satisfied by membership in groups based on shared

ancestry and culture. A different conception of ethnicity

de-emphasizes the cultural component and defines ethnic

groups as interest groups. In this view, ethnicity serves as

a way of mobilizing a certain population behind issues

(10) relating to its economic position. While both of these

definitions are useful, neither fully captures the dynamic

and changing aspects of ethnicity in the United States.

Rather, ethnicity is more satisfactorily conceived of as a

process in which preexisting communal bonds and common

(15) cultural attributes are adapted for instrumental purposes

according to changing real-life situations.

One example of this process is the rise of participation

by Native American people in the broader United States

political system since the Civil Rights movement of the

(20)1960’s. Besides leading Native Americans to participate

more actively in politics (the number of Native American

legislative officeholders more than doubled), this movement

also evoked increased interest in tribal history and traditional

culture. Cultural and instrumental components of

(25 )ethnicity are not mutually exclusive, but rather reinforce

one another.

The Civil Rights movement also brought changes in the

uses to which ethnicity was put by Mexican American

people. In the 1960’s, Mexican Americans formed

(30) community-based political groups that emphasized ancestral

heritage as a way of mobilizing constituents. Such emerg-

ing issues as immigration and voting rights gave Mexican

American advocacy groups the means by which to promote

ethnic solidarity. Like European ethnic groups in the

(35) nineteenth-century United States, late-twentieth-century

Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contem-

porary civic symbols. In 1968 Henry Censors, then mayor

of San Antonio, Texas, cited Mexican leader Benito Juarez

as a model for Mexican Americans in their fight for con-

(40) temporary civil rights. And every year, Mexican Americans

celebrate Cinco de Mayo as fervently as many Irish

American people embrace St. Patrick’s Day (both are major

holidays in the countries of origin), with both holidays

having been reinvented in the context of the United States

and linked to ideals, symbols, and heroes of the United


1. Which of the following best states the main idea of the


(A) In their definitions of the nature of ethnicity,

sociologists have underestimated the power of the

primordial human need to belong.

(B) Ethnicity is best defined as a dynamic process that

combines cultural components with shared

political and economic interests.

(C) In the United States in the twentieth century, ethnic

groups have begun to organize in order to further

their political and economic interests.

(D) Ethnicity in the United States has been significantly

changed by the Civil Rights movement.

(E) The two definitions of ethnicity that have dominated

sociologists discussions are incompatible

and should be replaced by an entirely new approach.

2. Which is the following statements about the first two

definitions of ethnicity discussed in the first paragraph

is supported by the passage?

(A) One is supported primarily by sociologists, and the

other is favored by members of ethnic groups.

(B) One emphasizes the political aspects of ethnicity,

and the other focuses on the economic aspects.

(C) One is the result of analysis of United States

populations, and the other is the result of analysis of

European populations.

(D) One focuses more on the ancestral components

of ethnicity than does the other.

(E) One focuses more on immigrant groups than does

the other.

3. The author of the passage refers to Native American

people in the second paragraph in order to provide an

example of

(A) the ability of membership in groups based on

shared ancestry and culture to satisfy an essential

human need.

(B) how ethnic feelings have both motivated and been

strengthened by political activity

(C) how the Civil Rights movement can help promote

solidarity among United States ethnic groups

(D) how participation in the political system has

helped to improve a group’s economic situation

(E) the benefits gained from renewed study of ethnic

history and culture

4. The passage supports which of the following statements

about the Mexican American co+munity?

(A) In the 1960’s the Mexican American community

began to incorporate the customs of another ethnic

group in the United States into the observation of its

own ethnic holidays.

(B) In the 1960’s Mexican American community

groups promoted ethnic solidarity primarily in

order to effect economic change

(C) In the 1960’s leader of the Mexican American

community concentrated their efforts on promoting

a renaissance of ethnic history and culture

(D) In the 1960’s members of the Mexican American

community were becoming increasingly concerned

about the issue of voting rights.

(E) In the 1960’s the Mexican American community

had greater success in mobilizing constituents

than did other ethnic groups in the United States.

5. Which of the following types of ethnic cultural

expression is discussed in the passage?

(A) The retelling of traditional narratives

(B) The wearing of traditional clothing

(C) The playing of traditional music

(D) The celebration of traditional holidays

(E) The preparation of traditional cuisine

6. Information in the passage supports which of the

following statements about many European ethnic

groups in the nineteenth-century United States?

(A) They emphasized economic interests as a way of

mobilizing constituents behind certain issues.

(B) They conceived of their own ethnicity as being

primordial in nature.

(C) They created cultural traditions that fused United

States symbols with those of their countries of


(D) They de-emphasized the cultural components of

their communities in favor of political interests.

(E) They organized formal community groups designed

to promote a renaissance of ethnic history and


7. The passage suggests that in 1968 Henry Cisneros most

likely believed that

(A) many Mexican American would respond positively

to the example of Benito Juarez.

(B) many Mexican American were insufficiently

educated in Mexican history

(C) the fight for civil fights in the United States had

many strong parallels in both Mexican and rish


(D) the quickest way of organizing community-based

groups was to emulate the tactics of Benito Juarez

(E) Mexican Americans should emulate the strategies

of Native American political leaders.

Passage 63

The fact that superior service can generate a competitive

advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt

at improving service will create such an advantage. Invest-

ments in service, like those in production and distribution,

(5) must be balanced against other types of investments on the

basis of direct, tangible benefits such as cost reduction and

increased revenues. If a company is already effectively on a

par with its competitors because it provides service that

avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from

(10) leaving at an unacceptable rate, then investment in higher

service levels may be wasted, since service is a deciding

factor for customers only in extreme situations.

This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional

bank, which failed to improve its competitive position

(15) despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had

to wait for a teller. The bank managers did not recognize

the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking

industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching

banks. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to

(20) determine whether it would attract new customers by pro-

ducing a new standard of service that would excite cus-

tomers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. The

only merit of the improvement was that it could easily be

described to customers.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) contrast possible outcomes of a type of business


(B) suggest more careful evaluation of a type of

business investment

(C) illustrate various ways in which a type of business

investment could fail to enhance revenues

(D) trace the general problems of a company to a

certain type of business investment

(E) criticize the way in which managers tend to analyze

the costs and benefits of business investments

2. According to the passage, investments in service are

comparable to investments in production and

distribution in terms of the

(A) tangibility of the benefits that they tend to confer

(B) increased revenues that they ultimately produce

(C) basis on which they need to be weighed

(D) insufficient analysis that managers devote to them

(E) degree of competitive advantage that they are likely

to provide

3. The passage suggests which of the following about

service provided by the regional bank prior to its

investment in enhancing that service?

(A) It enabled the bank to retain customers at an

acceptable rate

(B) It threatened to weaken the bank’s competitive

position with respect to other regional banks

(C) It had already been improved after having caused

damage to the bank’s reputation in the past.

(D) It was slightly superior to that of the bank’s regional


(E) It needed to be improved to attain parity with the

service provided by competing banks.

4. The passage suggests that bank managers failed to

consider whether or not the service improvement

mentioned in line 19

(A) was too complicated to be easily described to

prospective customers

(B) made a measurable change in the experiences of

customers in the bank’s offices

(C) could be sustained if the number of customers

increased significantly

(D) was an innovation that competing banks could

have imitated

(E) was adequate to bring the bank’s general level of

service to a level that was comparable with that of

its competitors

5. The discussion of the regional bank (line 13-24) serves

which of the following functions within the passage as a


(A) It describes an exceptional case in which

investment in service actually failed to produce a

competitive advantage.

(B) It illustrates the pitfalls of choosing to invest in

service at a time when investment is needed

more urgently in another area.

(C) It demonstrates the kind of analysis that managers

apply when they choose one kind of service

investment over another

(D) It supports the argument that investments in

certain aspects of service are more advantageous

than investments in other aspects of service.

(E) It provides an example of the point about

investment in service made in the first paragraph.

6. The author uses the word “only” in line 23 most likely

in order to

(A) highlight the oddity of the service improvement

(B) emphasize the relatively low value of the

investment in service improvement

(C) distinguish the primary attribute of the service

improvement from secondary attributes

(D) single out a certain merit of the service

improvement from other merits

(E) point out the limited duration of the actual service

































































You have to login to post comment!!